G Chapter 15 - Chapter15...

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Chapter 15  RNA polymerase participates in all three phases of transcription:  initiation, elongation, and termination Initiation  requires a subunit of RNA polymerase – the sigma factor  Sigma factor binds to the promoter and unwinds the DNA to begin polymerization Elongation  – core RNA polymerase without a sigma factor Continues until RNA polymerase reaches termination signal  Termination  – two types in prokaryotes: Rho-dependent & Rho-independent  Rho-dependent – Rho protein binds to RNA polymerase and removed it from RNA  Rho-independent – RNA forms a hairpin loop that signals the release of RNA polymerase Lactose requires two enzymes: Lac permease is used to transport lactose into cell  B – Galactosidase splits lactose into galactose and glucose  At low levels of lactose, the enzymes are present at low levels  Induction – stimulate the synthesis of a specific protein  Inducer – molecule responsible for induction  The lac operon allows expression of three structural genes:  Composition:  - Three structural genes – lacZ, lacY, and lacA  LacZ – encodes B-Galactosidase  LacY – encodes permease 
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