G Chapter 19 - Chapter19 Highermutationrate Lowerrepairrate...

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Chapter 19 Apoptosis – programmed cell death  Occurs when the genomic DNA becomes too damaged  Cancer cells have a higher rate of mutation than normal cells  There are one or more causes: - Higher mutation rate - Lower repair rate  - Checkpoint defects Cancer is a clone of cells  - The sample from normal tissues express mixture of both alleles - Clones of normal cells express only one allele - Sample from tumor express only one allele As men started to smoke in the 1920s, women then began to smoke People who smoke for many years have a higher risk of lung cancer than people who do not smoke Public health campaigns show there has been a decrease in smoke and lung cancer in recent years Cancer also rises dramatically with old age  Growth Factors – cell signals that stimulate or inhibit cell proliferation Receptors – located on the surface of the cell  Signal Transducers – located in the cytoplasm 
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