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Psychology Chapter 2 Notes

Psychology Chapter 2 Notes - Psychology Chapter 2 Notes...

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Psychology Chapter 2 Notes Psychological Research Scientific Method An investigate method that generates empirical knowledge Knowledge is derived from systematic observations of the world The 4 Steps (The Rat Diagram) Observe Detect Regularities Generate Hypothesis Observe Operational Definitions Defining concepts in measurable terms Example – Intelligence is defined as an individual’s score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Observing Behavior: Descriptive Research Descriptive research involves the direct observation and description of behavior If people know they are being observed, their behavior may change. This is called reactivity. External validity o Means the results generalize to the real world Naturalistic Observation: Type of Descriptive Research Margaret Mean in Bali Record naturally occurring behavior, not laboratory behavior. Participant-observers cuts down on reactivity (e.g., Psychologists who infiltrated the doomsday cult) Can measure results of behavior (e.g., wearing down of tiles in front of museum exhibits. Naturalistic Observation: Pros and Cons Provides record of natural behavior Can verify results of laboratory experiments (do research results from the highly controlled laboratory setting agree with those obtained in a natural setting) Not a good method for establishing cause-and-effect relations Case Studies: Type of Descriptive Research Intensive study of a single individual Gives historical perspective and suggests hypotheses The Three Faces of Eve is a good example of a case study
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A single case may be atypical. Difficult to verify information. Not good for determining cause-and-effect relationships Surveys: Type of Descriptive Research Method for gathering information from many people, usually by questionnaire (e.g., voter polls) Random sampling used to select a sample that is representative of the population
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Psychology Chapter 2 Notes - Psychology Chapter 2 Notes...

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