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Exam III review

Exam III review - Biology 1305 Review Exam III Chapter 43...

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Biology 1305 Review – Exam III Chapter 43 – The Plant Body 1. Angiosperms – flowering plants; gymnosperms – group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with naked seeds; monocots – narrow-leaved flowering plants, single narrow cotyledon, flowering parts in multiples of 3, stem vascular bundles are scattered, leaves have parallel veins ; dicots —has two cotyledons on seed leaf, flowers in multiples of 5, stem vascular bundles are in a ring, frequently have secondary growth, leaf veins are reticulated 2. Modified stem – stems that aren’t typical, ex: potatoes have a tuber that is an underground stem rather than a root; stolons (runners) – horizontal stems which grow at the soil surface or above ground; rhizome – horizontal stem usually found underground, often shooting out roots or shoots from its nodes; leaf arrangements alternate : singular at nodes, and leaves alternate direction, to a greater or lesser degree, along the stem, opposite : paired at each node, whorled : three or more leaves attach at each point or node on the stem, rosulate : leafs form a rosette; simple vs. compound leaves – simple leaves have a single blade, compound leaves are arranged along a single axis 3. Adventitious buds are buds where you wouldn’t expect them, such as buds on a sweet potato. Adventitious roots arise above ground from points along the stem, often can form where a piece of the shoot is cut 4. Sclerenchyma cells have thick primary cell walls and are usually involved in shape elongation. They provide support in leaf petioles, non-woody stems and growing organs. Tissues that have collenchymas cells are flexible. Parenchyma cells have thickened secondary walls. Many die after the secondary wall is laid down, they are mostly dead when water (impermeable to water.) Example: wood and pears. 5. Phloem is responsible for transporting carbohydrates from the sites of production (called sources, primarily leaves) to sites of utilization or storage (called sink, like growing tissue, storage tubes, and developing flowers). In other words, it is the food conducting tissue. Xylem is responsible for water distribution and the distribution of mineral ions taken up by the root to all the stems taken up by the stem and the leaves. Because it’s so highly developed, it can perform a variety of functions—transport, support, and storage. 6. The three tissues of the plant: vascular tissue system is the plant’s plumbing or transport system, consisting of the phloem and the xylem. Dermal tissue system is the outer covering of the plant. All parts of the younger plant body are covered by an epidermis , which may be a single layer of cells or several layers, which is a complex tissue made of specialized cells for gas exchange in leaves. The shoot epidermis secretes a waxy cuticle that helps retard water loss from stem and leaves. The stems and roots of woody plants have a dermal tissue system called the periderm . The ground tissue
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Exam III review - Biology 1305 Review Exam III Chapter 43...

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