bio part 3 notes

bio part 3 notes - Tracing Phylogeny Systematics: study of...

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Tracing Phylogeny Systematics: study of biodiversity in an evolutionary context, encompassing taxonomy and phylogeny Taxonomy-IDing, naming and classification of species o Taxon (pl. taxa) group of organisms (species, genius, family) Phylogeny-evolutionary relationships(history) of taxa Homologous characters are the only indicators of evolutionary descent. o A) homology- similarity attributable to common ancestry (vertebrate forelimbs, vertebral column) Reptiliomorph ancestor- position, composition, development o B) nonhomology= analogy = homoplasy Convergent similarity independently evolved for same function Insect wings vs. bird wings *Characters: features of organisms Behavioral- mating patterns, mating calls Molecular- protein sequence, gene sequence, position of genes on chromosome *phylogeny reconstruction (Cladistics/Phylogenetic Systematics): how to tell recency of ancestry (who is most closely related to whom) Determine pattern of shared derived homologues(shared derived characters, synapomorphies) among organisms of interest Distinguish between shared derived and shared primitive (ancestral) characters=symplesiomorphies *cladogram, phylogeny, phylogenetic tree: graphical representation of evolutionary relationships *monophyletic group: ancestor and all descendents *monophyletic group=clade. Supported by shared derived characters *monotremes: egg laying mammals *hair and mammary glands=shared derived features of mammals *significance of phylogeny reconstruction-provides framework for classification, interpretation of patterns of evolutionary change ANIMAL DIVERSITY Protozoa-Protista, unicell eukaryotes, diverse, ~92000 species Choanoflagella-sister taxon to Metazoa(animals), morphological and molecular evidence *tissue-group of similar cells (sheet or widely spaced cells)
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2008 for the course BIOL 102 taught by Professor Henshaw during the Spring '08 term at VCU.

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bio part 3 notes - Tracing Phylogeny Systematics: study of...

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