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old second exams - Second Examination 1(15 pts 11(8 pts...

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Unformatted text preview: Second Examination 1. (15 pts) 11. (8 pts) III (12 pts) IV (12 pts) Chemistry 11 Tufts University November 16, 2005 For each of the following molecules or molecular ion: (a) (b) (C) Give the steric number of the central atom Sketch and name the approximate molecular geometry Formulate the hybridization for the central atom. In each case, the central atom is listed first 1. SO3 2. CH3+ 3. XeF;r 4. BrO3' 5. SOzCl2 Give an example of an interhalogen ion and its molecular geometry having the following formula type. Use halogens that are easy to work with in the laboratory. (6!) AB: (b) ABz' Carbon suboxide (C302) is a stable oxide of carbon. Draw a Lewis structure and describe the bonding in terms of hybrid orbitals on the carbon atoms. Predict the product(s) for the following reactions and give balanced equations. (a) (b) (C) (d) Kl(aq) + excess 12(5) -* Se(s) + BrF5(s) -v octahedral and T—shaped molecule(s) XeF6(s) + H200) e pyramidal plus linear molecules 802(g) + PC15(g) - two compounds having the same electron domain Use molecular orbital theory to determine (a) (b) (C) The ground state electronic configurations for l. O ‘ 2 2. CN‘ 3. OF 4. 3; Bond orders of each of the above species The magnetic properties of each V (12 pts) VI (12 pts) VH (12 pts) VH1 (17 pts) The azide ion, N3‘, is a linear ion with two nitrogen-nitrogen bonds of equal length. 1.16/3 (a) Draw Lewis resonance structures for the azide ion. (b) What hybridization scheme would you expect at each of the nitrogen atoms in N32 (0) Show which hybridized and unhybridized orbitals are involved in the formation of o and TE bonds in N3“. (d) Why is it often observed that 0 bonds that involve an sp hybrid orbital are shorter than those that involve sp2 or sp3 hybrid orbitals? (a) Neutron diffraction is an important technique for determining the structure of molecules. Calculate the velocity of a neutron that has a wavelength of 0.885.. (b) For an electronic transition from n=2 to n=7 in the hydrogen atom, calculate the energy (J /mol), wavelength of the associated radiation and state whether radiation is emitted or absorbed during the transitions. (c) The human eye receives a 3.65 x 10‘17 J signal from photons whose wavelength is 515nm. How many photons have hit the eye? Suggest the central atom in each of the following triatomic molecules or ions and state your reasons(s). (a) Cyanamide ion, CNfi (b) Thiocyanate ion, SCN‘ (c) Nitrosyl chloride, NOCl l. (4 pts) Which of the quantum numbers govems (a) the shape of the orbitals, (b) the energy of an orbital, (c) the spin properties of the electron, and (d) the spatial orientation of the orbital. 2. (2 pts) One of the f orbitals is labeled the fXyz orbital. Predict the number of nodal planes of this orbital. 3. (2 pts) , Consider the 82', Cl', and K‘r ions. List the ions in order of increasing size. 4. (2 pts) Predict the order in increasing length of the N-O bond lengths in NO+, NOZ', and N032 5. (3 pts) Will the following molecules be polar or non polar? (a) 802, (b) IFS, (c) PCl3. 6. (4 pts) The Lewis structure of allene is H H \c = c = c/ / \ H H (a) Is the molecule planar? (b) Is the molecule polar? (c) Is there delocalized bonding in the molecule? [VI/”W779 WM. 41,74,571“ 35 fizz/.5535; )w1mu’n’flldo’ "77 7 7 "7-7777777777777”777-777”77777-77777777777“7777777777777777 O12: WWW W W7 W fimwzv’rffl’ww 0-7 ,.,.,,...... ~ 7-7“ --4-.--444__._4 -.444- €244”.--144...42.-.-.-_-.-...4-_-44.4.444_4.4...“-..___4._,_,4. Dd *‘7 3?ij 4772745 Wfiagflg’vé 2274" W (11/ 241%727'2j 7 ,7?%rf_717;£77777 S ..,. - E1041 7 “905 21-49202 ,2. ‘oé d5 77’ W W’W‘W" WW1 79732512171433 71232757232377 ““5“" ,.44. ‘7 H A V" ' ' ""‘ “' ..4- "“_“““~ _#7‘ -44_. 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HDOWhamvnNr—vommhomvaHU firiHHv—(MHHH gmaxaaaaagwswmmga:nanmmmzhwaazsrysmmmmmmmvv wwwwnmmmnmmw "N”NNNNH H Second Examination 1(12pts) ll (10 pts) 111( 10 pts) 1v (8 pts) V(12pts) V1 (12 pts) 1. ls.) Chemistry 1 1 Tufts University November 15, 2004 The Balmer series of emission lines of excited H atoms originates from electrons changing from high energy levels to the n=2 level. To account for the 410.2 nm line in the Balmer series, what is the value of n for the initial level? Consider the n=3 state of the He“ ion, calculate the radius (in meters) of the electron orbit and energy (in kJ/mol) of the ion relative to the nucleus and electron separated by an infinite distance. Use bond energies to calculate the heats of the following reactions: (at) C0(g) + 2Hz(g) * H3COH(g) (b) CH4(g)+12(g) *’ CHgKg) + H1(g) Phosphorous reacts with chlorine to form phosphorus trichloride. The heat of formation of PC13(g) is —306.4 kJ/mol. Calculate the bond dissociation energy of P-Cl bond in PC13. A stable molecule can be formed containing one atom of nitro gen, oxygen, and phosphorus. Depending on which element is the central atom, three bonding structures are possible: (a) (b) Write the best Lewis structure for each of the three different molecules. Which connectivity is most stable? What bond angles do you expect for each of the following: (a) (b) (C) (d) The F -S-F angle in SF2 The F -Kr—F angle in KrF4 The O—S-O angle in 8042' The O-B-O angle in B033~ Use molecular orbital theory to determine (a) (b) (C) Ground state electronic configurations of CO NO‘ C22" 022‘ Bond orders of each of the above species Which are paramagnetic For each of the following diamagnetic molecules or ions, predict: 1. 2. 3. The electron pair geometry The molecular geometry The hybrid orbital of the central atom (a) TeF3' (b) BIO; (c) IF4' (d) NiBrf— VII (8 pts) 1. (a) Formulate a localized-orbital model for both 0 and 7t bonds in CO33‘ (b) Why does a delocalized 1t bond give a better respresentation of the bonding? l\) The three species N02: N02, and N02‘ have O—N-O bond angles of 180°, 134°, andl 15°, respectively. Explain this variation in bond angles. VII (28 pts) VII. (28 pts) Multiple Choice -2 pts each 1. To Max Planck is attributed the (a) uncertainty Principle (b) hydrogen atom model (c) line spectrum equation (d) concept of matter waves (e) quantum concept [‘0 The probability of finding an electron at a given point in space is given by the value of at that point. (a) W (b) 11’ (c) w? (d) A (e) 110/)» 3. The lowest energy level that contains f orbitals is the level with n = (a) l (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) 5 4. In the symbol, PX, what is the meaning of x? (a) energy (b) the spin of the electrons (c) the probability of the level (d) the size of the orbital (e) the axis along which the obital is aligned 5. How many electrons in an atom can have the following set of quantum of numbers: 11:3, 1:2, m=0 (a) 1 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 10 (e) none of the above 10. ll. 12. Which one of the following elements has the largest negative electron affinity? (a) Na (b) A] (c) Se (d) C1 (e) P Which of the following elements has the largest third ionization energy? (a) As (b) P (0) Sc ((1) Ti (e) Ca Beer’s Law applies to the following transitions in molecules. (a) electronic transitions (b) vibrational transitions (c) rotational transitions ((1) a, b, and c (e) none of the above What information is obtained from the vibrational spectra of a nonpolar molecule? (a) fingerprint of the molecule (b) bond angles and bond lengths (c) rotational energy levels (d) molar extinction coefficient (e) none of the above Lattice energy as ionic radius increase and as ionic charge increases. (a) decreases, increases (b) increases, decreases (c) increases, increases (d) decreases, decreases (e) none of the above Which one of the following species has the largest radius? (a) Rb+ (b) Sr2+ (0) Br‘ (d) Kr (e) A13" The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself is termed. (a) paramagnetism (b) diamagnetism (c) electronegativity (d) electron affinity (e) first ionization potential 14. 13. Which of the following sets of quantum numbers is not permissible? (a) n=1,1=0,m=0,s=+‘/2 (b) n=4.,1=2,m=0,s=+‘/2 (C) n=3.,1=2,m=—2,s=—1/2 (d) n=1., =1,m=1,s=-‘/2 (e) n=4.,1=3,m=-2,s=—1/2 As the number of covalent bonds between two atoms increases, the distance between the atoms and the strength of the bond between them (a) increases, increases (b) decreases, decreases (c) increases, decreases ((1) decreases, increases (e) remains constant, increases T 1.2% we! saw MW 5; 190% \\ 062.1444” _.m—v _ _ _ ’f,}";___l_)l ’: ‘ ‘ iii/J.) » -- ' ' " ' (if) A» _ {If ’ 41g / 212x10 2" n; 2/9; 109:9 .737 4. fl” /,@fl:A/_r; 1:52; 59264-2 gaimfimsfaw e7:yij:9';q‘w'/é "7" ZX/O: m ‘_ _m ems; @252 deb 965 : : / (6"3‘4‘1073'395“110.3%” :5 yiiflxm ’3 = J/Swo'ih L57") PM 7M @ 65"? , ,3 4M - _ ._ _ JEROMOXIXIGT __)"‘ LLEXJO", M "@2322 9.- @133; GS 24:» r—ELZ-z-f—“zflie "“1362?" a: dog: _ an»? 6311 ~ ——:- = 232/7 = film/Vi: a ,— ,, 0 fl,» ————— - 7, (5; . 4? [E7123‘En3w] - 2/900" “’3 lg: 7.6%»(10‘57 3.. 3., 3,, ,, AEZGAYE x 16/016 42 nu 013).. I: 2/0194; I M 6"; l. "352‘. 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