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Chapter 6 - Appeal to Ignorance occurs when an arguer...

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Chapter 6 Fallacies of Insufficient Evidence : mistakes in reasoning in which the premises, though relevant to the conclusion, fail to provide sufficient evidence for the conclusion. Inappropriate appeal to authority: committed when an arguer cites a witness or authority who, there is good reason to believe, is unreliable. Is the Source Not an Authority on the Subject at Issue? An authority is a person who possesses special knowledge, competence, or expertise in a particular field. Is the Source Biased? Be cautious about accepting a claim. Is the Accuracy of the Source’s Observations Questionable? Is the Source Known to be generally unreliable? Has the Source been cited incorrectly? Does the Source’s claim conflict with expert opinion? Is the source’s claim not one that can be settled by an appeal to expert opinion? Is the claim high improbable on its Face?
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Unformatted text preview: Appeal to Ignorance: occurs when an arguer asserts that a claim must be true because no one has proven it false or, conversely, that a claim must be false because no one has proven it true. False Alternatives: committed when an arguer poses a fake either/or choice Loaded Question: arguer asks a question that contains an unfair or unwarranted assumption Questionable cause: aruger claims, without adequate evidence, that one thing is the cause of something else. Hasty generalization: arguer draws a general conclusion from a sample that is biased or too small. Slippery Slope: arguer claims, without adequate evidence, that a seemingly harmless action will lead to a very bad outcome. Weak analogy: arguer compares things that aren’t truly comparable Inconsistency: arguer asserts inconsistent claims....
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