Standards to judge a Deductive argument: 1. A deductive argument that has the correct connection between premises and conclusion is called deductively valid. An argument is deductively valid if and only if it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false at the same time. In other words, an argument is deductively valid if and only if, the premises are true, the conclusion must be true. 2. A deductive argument is sound if and only if a. It is deductively valid AND b. All the premises are true c. A sound deductive argument must, therefore, have a TRUE conclusion. i. An argument can be deductively valid (true premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion) and unsound (i.e., the argument has at least one false premise) at the same time. 3. Forms of Deductive Arguments a. Modus Ponens-Valid b. Modus Tollens-Valid c. Chain Argument-Valid d. Argument by elimination(disjunctive syllogism)-Valid e. Denying the antecedent-Invalid f. Affirming the consequent-Invalid Standards to judge a Inductive argument:
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