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Logic Study Guide

# Logic Study Guide - Argument an argument is an attempt to...

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Argument: an argument is an attempt to support a claim (the conclusion) by giving reasons (the premises) for believing it. “a claim defended with reasons” Two general features of deductive arguments: 1. Deductive arguments are designed to be truth-preserving, that is, are designed to guarantee the truth of the conclusion given true premises. 2. Deductive arguments generally do not contain any new information in the conclusion , that is, the information in the conclusion is a re-combination of information already contained in the premises. Two general features of inductive arguments: 1. Inductive arguments are not designed to be truth-preserving, that is, are designed to show that the conclusion is PROBABLY true given true premises . 2. Inductive arguments generally do contain any new information in the conclusion . Statement : is a sentence that can be viewed as either true or false. 1. Sentence may be used to express more than one statement a. Roses are red and violets are blue are 2 distinct statements, each of these statements is capable of standing alone as a declarative sentence. 2. A statement can sometimes be expressed as a phrase or an incomplete clause 3. Some statements might look like non-statements, BUT, a rhetorical question and an ought imperative ARE statements a. Rhetorical Question : Alyssa, you should quit smoking. Don’t you realize how bad that is for your health?

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Logic Study Guide - Argument an argument is an attempt to...

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