-- human existence is full of contradictions and paradoxes
-- human beings defy absolute general principles (there’s always an exception
to every rule)
-- human existence is largely irrational, illogical and inconsistent
So, to reflect the reality of human existence accurately, psychology should seek
to embrace and illuminate these complexities, not reduce or simplify them.
Applying Occam’s Razor to human existence invariably results in a
diminishment of human existence -- usually at the level of experience, meaning
NATURAL SCIENCE PSYCHOLOGY includes those schools of
psychological thought modeled on the natural sciences (and hence on Occam’s
In contrast, humanistic psychology proceeds HOLISTICALLY (also spelled
WHOLISTICALLY). There are two basic aspects to this view:
-- it sees human beings in terms of ALL that we are -- our minds, feelings,
bodies, souls, histories, relationships, social statuses, experiences, meanings,
values, freedoms, responsibilities and more.
-- it sees human beings as being inextricably connected to the many
CONTEXTS in which we find ourselves -- immediate contexts such as family,
friends, community, as well as large contexts such as USA, world -- and even
the universe as a whole.
In a holistic view, a human being can’t be reduced to any of its parts or
Nor to the sum of any parts, because human existence is always more
sum of its component parts (an idea from Gestalt psychology).
According to a holistic view, you can’t understand a person’s feelings without