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Introduction To Psychology - Notes: Module 22, 23, 25

Introduction To Psychology - Notes: Module 22, 23, 25 -...

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Introduction to Psychology Module 22 -- Assessment and Anxiety Disorders PSYCHOPATHOLOGY -- psychological disturbance 3 approaches: 1. The MEDICAL MODEL -- approaches psychopathology much like physical disorders: Diagnosing disorders in terms of their symptoms, whose causes (i.e., etiologies) are treated, usually via drugs and/or psychotherapy. 2. The COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL approach -- psychopathology arises from deficits in cognition (I.e, thoughts & beliefs), together with behavioral problems. 3. The PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH -- psychopathology arises from fixations in early stage of development and takes the form of unconscious structures. More formally: the DSM-IV contains the current, standard working definitions and diagnostic criteria for psychopathology. 17 major categories containing 230 specific disorders. For each disorder, the DSM-IV -- describes the disorder -- predicts its future course -- provides a common vocabulary for description (thereby stimulating research) -- organizes related disorders The DSM-IV conceives of psychopathology according to THE MEDICAL MODEL: 2 older broad terms still in use: PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (a.k.a. "PSYCHOSES) -- severe disturbances in thinking, feeling and functioning -- a break with reality.
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NEUROTIC DISORDERS (a.k.a. "NEUROSES") -- psychological disorders that still allow rational thinking and social functioning. ------------------------------- ANXIETY DISORDERS -- a category of disorders marked by anxiety and/or fear. GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER Marked by excessive & unrealistic FREE FLOATING ANXIETY (not around any special situation or object). Together with the usual physical symptoms of anxiety: Tenseness, apprehensiveness, jitters, racing heart, sweating, etc. PANIC DISORDER Marked by recurrent PANIC ATTACKS (intense, paralyzing experiences of panic, feelings of annihilation, suffocation, nausea, etc.). PHOBIC DISORDER Marked by phobias, irrational fears centered around a specific object and/or situation. 3 basic types: A. Specific phobias -- Centered around some object of situation. (e.g., snakes, high places, insects, flying). B. Social phobias -- Centered around some aspect of the social world (e.g., public speaking, strangers, eating in public). These tend to interfere more with life. C. AGORAPHOBIA -- fear of public places, open spaces -- tends to be the most debilitating. OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
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Marked by presence of intrusive: OBSESSIONS -- highly repetitive thoughts, worries, images that won't go away, and/or COMPULSIONS -- highly repetitive, rigid actions (e.g., cleaning, checking things, counting things) both obsessions and compulsions seen as attempts to ward off anxiety (also, post-traumatic stress disorder) ---------------------------------- SOMATOFORM DISORDERS -- a category of disorders that have to do with bodily (SOMATIC) symptoms with psychological causes (as in Freud's early cases) Generally, these disorders are more common in some cultures than in others, viz., MORE common in cultures where psychological symptoms are LESS acceptable.
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