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Aristotle - Physics & Metaphysics

Aristotle - Physics & Metaphysics - Aristotle...

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Aristotle Physics (pp180-187) Metaphysics (Book I.1, pp187- 91)
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Physics Introduction Concerned with the nature of change. Change occurs in nature and so the Physics addresses the fundamental general principles of nature. In Book I, Aristotle argues against the view of change expressed by Parmenides that there is no change.
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His argument is significant in introducing two conceptions of change: Change as alteration of substance: X comes to be a Y E.g., a person learns music and becomes musical. Change as generation of substance: Y comes to be from X This kind of change requires the form/matter distinction and new substances are generated when a new form is imposed on an already existing matter. E.g., a block of marble is carved into a bust of George Washington.
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In both cases, Aristotle argues, something must be underlying the change. Alteration: a particular substance (Mary) changes (Mary becomes musical by learning music). Generation : some matter (marble) changes (the marble is carved into a bust of Washington).
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In Book II, Aristotle examines the role of change in the explanations of physics. Physics is concerned with the principles of change of objects and there are two general classes of objects. Natural objects are their own sources of change; natural objects occur in nature. Artifactual objects are changed by external forces; artifacts occur from human agency.
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Explaining change requires understanding the causes of any object. Aristotle maintains that explaining the causes of an object amounts to explaining the why of the object.
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