Introduction To Psychology - Notes: Module 9, 10, 17

Introduction To Psychology - Notes: Module 9, 10, 17 -...

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Introduction to Psychology Module 9: Classical Conditioning Learning -- "a relatively enduring… change in behavior that results from previous experience with certain stimuli & responses" (hence an emphasis on BEHAVIORISM). 3 main modes of learning, according to behaviorism: 1. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: Learning by association (Module 9). 2. OPERANT CONDITIONING: Learning by rewards & punishments (Mod. 10). 3. COGNITIVE LEARNING: Learning by watching others (Module 10). 1. Classical Conditioning -- Pavlov's dogs. Steps: Prior to conditioning… An UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (UCS) produces an UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UCR). (UCS --> UCR). For instance, (presence of food --> salivation). During conditioning trials… A neutral stimulus, called a CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) is repeatedly presented just prior to the UCS, which then produces the UCR. (CS + UCS --> UCR). For instance, (bell + food --> salivation). After conditioning… The CS alone will produce the response, which is now called a CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR). (CS --> CR). For instance, (bell --> salivation).
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The dog has learned to associate the neutral stimulus (bell) with the food, such that the dog now responds to the bell as it normally would to the food. Over time, there are a number of distinct phases to this process of association: (this chart is not in book): | | | | Spontaneous | | | | Recovery Strength | | | | of CR | | | | | | | | |------------------------------------------------------------------------> time Acquisition | Extinction | pause | Extinction (again) (CS+UCS) (CS Alone) (CS Alone) Some other aspects of this process: GENERALIZATION: often, stimuli similar to the CS can also elicit a CR. DISCRIMINATION: still, most creatures can learn to distinguish different (but similar) stimuli. 3 Theories of Classical Conditioning: Stimulus Substitution (Pavlov’s theory): Through association, the new stimulus acts like a substitute for the older one. Contiguity Theory: Classical conditioning occurs as a function of how the 2 stimuli are paired together in time.
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Cognitive Perspective (the current one): The new stimulus sets up expectations such that it PREDICTS the other one. The case of LITTLE ALBERT illustrates that even phobic behaviors can be learned simply via classical conditioning. At first: Loud noise (UCS) Fear response (UCR) Repeat: White rat (neutral) + Loud noise (UCS) Fear response (UCR) Afterward: White rat (CS) Fear response (CR) An application: SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION (for cases of anxiety, fear, phobias). Step 1: Learning relaxation behavior by practicing muscular relaxation. Step 2: Making a hierarchy of increasing anxiety-provoking approximations to the situation.
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2008 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Dodson during the Fall '07 term at University of West Georgia.

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Introduction To Psychology - Notes: Module 9, 10, 17 -...

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