Chapter 2 - The Southern Colonies in the 17th and 18th...

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The Southern Colonies in the 17th and 18th C e n t u r ies I. Southern Plantation Colonies -- general characteristics A. Dominated to a degree by a plantation economy: tobacco & r ice B. Slavery in all colonies (even Georgia after 1750); mostly indentured servants for until 1676 in Virginia and Maryland -- increasingly black slavery thereafterr. C. Large land holdings in the hands of the favored few = aristocratic atmosphere (except N. Carolina and parts of Georgia) D. Sparsely populated: churches & schools too expensive for very small towns. E. All practiced some form of religious toleration -- Church of England (Anglican Church) most prominent F. Expansionary attitudes stimulated in large part due to degradation of soil from tobacco farming. II. The Chesapeake (Virginia & Maryland) A. Vi r gi n i a (founded in 1607 by Virginia Company) 1. Jamestown, 1607 -- 1st permanent British colony in New World a. Founded by Vi r gi n i a Company that received charter in London from King James I. i. Main goals: Promise of gold, conversion of Indians to Christianity (just like Spain), and new passage to the Indies. ii. Consisted largely of well-to-do adventurers b. Vi r gi n i a C h a r t e r i. O ve r se a s settlers given same rights of Englishmen in E n gl a nd ii. Became foundation for American liberties; rights extended to other colonies. 2. Colony wracked by tragedy during early years: famine, disease, war with Indians a. By 1625, only 1200 of the nearly 8000 colonists survived b. Only 60 out of 400 settlers survived "starving time" of 1610-1611 3.Captain John Smith organized the colony beginning in 1608: "He who will not work shall not eat." a. Smith kidnapped in Dec. 1607 by Powhatans led by Chief Powhatan who subjected Smith to a what may have been a mock execution. b. Smith perhaps "saved" by Pocahantas, Powatan's daughter, when she was only 12 years old 4. Pocahantas eventually became a central figure in preserving peace in early Jamestown a. Provided foodstuffs to settlers. b. Became hostage of colonists in 1613 during military conflicts. c. Later married John Rolfe & taught him Indian way of curing tobacco. -- Died of small pox at age 22 5. John Rolfe and tobacco crop economy -- "Colony built on smoke" a. Rolfe introduced new tough strain of tobacco b. Tobacco industry became cornerstone of Virginia's economy. c. Plantation system emerged 6. House of B u r gesses (an assembly) authorized by London Company in 1619. a. 1 s t of mi n i a t u r e p ar li a m e nt i n t he B r i t i sh A m e r i c a n c o l on i e s. b. Representative self-government i. Most representatives were substantial property owners ii.Created as an incentive to attract settlers to the Virginia "Death Trap" 7.Virginia Charter revoked by James I in 1624 a. King believed assembly to seditious but also hated tobacco. b. Virginia became a royal colony directly under his control
B. M a r yl a nd 1. Charles I gave Sir G eo r ge Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, a portion of VA for C a t ho l i c h a v e n a nd p r o f i t .

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