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The Southern Colonies in the 17th and 18th CenturiesI. Southern Plantation Colonies -- general characteristicsA. Dominated to a degree by a plantation economy: tobacco & riceB. Slavery in all colonies (even Georgia after 1750); mostly indentured servants for until 1676in Virginia and Maryland -- increasingly black slavery thereafterr.C. Large land holdings in the hands of the favored few = aristocratic atmosphere (except N.Carolina and parts of Georgia)D. Sparsely populated: churches & schools too expensive for very small towns.E. All practiced some form of religious toleration-- Church of England (Anglican Church) most prominentF.Expansionary attitudes stimulated in large part due to degradation of soil from tobaccofarming.II. The Chesapeake (Virginia & Maryland)A. Virginia(founded in 1607 by Virginia Company)1.Jamestown, 1607 -- 1st permanent British colony in New Worlda. Founded by VirginiaCompany that received charter in London from King James I.i. Main goals: Promise of gold, conversion of Indians to Christianity (just likeSpain), and new passage to the Indies.ii. Consisted largely of well-to-do adventurersb. VirginiaCharteri. Overseassettlers given same rights of Englishmen in Englandii. Became foundation for American liberties; rights extended to other colonies.2. Colony wracked by tragedy during early years: famine, disease, war with Indiansa. By 1625, only 1200 of the nearly 8000 colonists survivedb. Only 60 out of 400 settlers survived "starving time" of 1610-16113.Captain John Smith organized the colony beginning in 1608: "He who will not work shallnot eat."a. Smith kidnapped in Dec. 1607 by Powhatans led by Chief Powhatan who subjectedSmith to a what may have been a mock execution.b. Smith perhaps "saved" by Pocahantas, Powatan's daughter, when she was only 12years old4. Pocahantas eventually became a central figure in preserving peace in early Jamestowna.Provided foodstuffs to settlers.b.Became hostage of colonists in 1613 during military conflicts.c.Later married John Rolfe & taught him Indian way of curing tobacco.-- Died of small pox at age 225. John Rolfe and tobacco crop economy -- "Colony built on smoke" a.Rolfe introduced new tough strain of tobaccob.Tobacco industry became cornerstone of Virginia's economy. c.Plantation system emerged6. House of Burgesses(an assembly) authorized by London Company in 1619.a. 1stofminiatureparliamentintheBritishAmericancolonies.b. Representative self-governmenti. Most representatives were substantial property ownersii.Created as an incentive to attract settlers to the Virginia "Death Trap"7.Virginia Charter revoked by James I in 1624a. King believed assembly to seditious but also hated tobacco.b. Virginia became a royal colony directly under his control
B. Maryland1.Charles I gave Sir GeorgeCalvert, the first Lord Baltimore, a portion of VA forCatholichavenandprofit.