Chapter 22 - RECONSTRUCTION Overview of principal Reconstruction proposals and plans 1864-65 Lincolns 10 plan 1865 13th Amendment 1865-66 Johnsons

Chapter 22 - RECONSTRUCTION Overview of principal...

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R E C O NS T R U C T I O N Overview of principal Reconstruction proposals and plans: -- 1864-65: Lincoln’s 10% plan -- 1865: 13 th A m e nd m e n t -- 1865-66: Johnson’s version of Lincoln’s proposal -- 1866-67: Congressional plan: 10% plan with 14th Amendment -- 1867-77: Military Reconstruction (Congress): 14th Amendment plus black suffrage later established nationwide by 15th A m e nd m e n t . -- Compromise of 1876: ends Reconstruction I. Context Setter: Four main questions vis-à-vis the post-Civil War South: 1. Rebuilding the South after its destruction and the emancipation of slavery 2. The condition of African Americans in the South 3. How would the South be reintegrated into the Union? 4. Who would control process of Reconstruction: Southern states, president, or Congress? II. What should be done with the leaders of the Confederacy? A. Jefferson Davis imprisoned for two years (others as well); eventually released. B. President Johnson pardoned all rebel leaders in December 1868. C. Congress did not remove many civil disabilities until 30 years later. III. 13th Amendment (Ratified in December, 1865) A. Effective when 3/4 of states ratified it; had passed with required 2/3 vote in Congress. B. Slavery abolished: "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the U.S. or any place subject to their jurisdiction. C. "Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. IV. Rebuilding the South A. Richmond, Charleston, and Atlanta were destroyed B. Economically the South lay in ruins 1. Banks ruined by runaway inflation 2. Factories were closed or destroyed 3. Transportation system was devastated. C. Agriculture 1. Cotton fields now fields of weeds 2. Livestock gone after northern invasion 3. 1860-size crop not until 1870; much from new Southwest D. Planter aristocrats devastated 1. Value in slaves disappeared 2. Many mansions destroyed or ruined
V. African Americans in the immediate post-Civil War South A. F r ee d m e n ’s Bureau (created in 1865 by Congress) 1. Headed by Gen. O live r O. Howard (later founded and served as president of Howard University in Washington D.C.) -- Members included many Northerners including former abolitionists who risked their lives to help the freedmen in the South; one of several northern groups called "carpetbaggers" by white southern Democrats. 2. P u r pos e : To h e l p unsk il l e d, un e du c a t e d, pov e r t y - s t r i c k e n e x - s l a v e s t o su r v i ve 3. Provided food, clothing, medicine & education to ex-slaves and poor whites a. Taught about 200,000 blacks how to read; many eager to read the Bible b. Negotiated labor agreements between freedmen and planters. 4. Authorized to provide " 40 a c re s a nd a m u l e " from confiscated or abandoned land to black settlers. a. In certain areas, the Bureau distributed no land.

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