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RECONSTRUCTIONOverview of principal Reconstruction proposals and plans:-- 1864-65: Lincoln’s 10% plan-- 1865: 13th Amendment-- 1865-66: Johnson’s version of Lincoln’s proposal-- 1866-67: Congressional plan: 10% plan with 14th Amendment-- 1867-77: Military Reconstruction (Congress): 14th Amendment plus black suffragelater established nationwide by 15th Amendment.-- Compromise of 1876: ends ReconstructionI. Context Setter: Four main questions vis-à-vis the post-Civil War South:1. Rebuilding the South after its destruction and the emancipation of slavery2. The condition of African Americans in the South3. How would the South be reintegrated into the Union?4. Who would control process of Reconstruction: Southern states, president, or Congress?II. What should be done with the leaders of the Confederacy?A. Jefferson Davis imprisoned for two years (others as well); eventually released.B. President Johnson pardoned all rebel leaders in December 1868.C. Congress did not remove many civil disabilities until 30 years later.III. 13th Amendment (Ratified in December, 1865)A. Effective when 3/4 of states ratified it; had passed with required 2/3 vote in Congress.B. Slavery abolished: "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishmentfor crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the U.S. or anyplace subject to their jurisdiction.C. "Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.IV. Rebuilding the SouthA. Richmond, Charleston, and Atlanta were destroyedB. Economically the South lay in ruins1. Banks ruined by runaway inflation2. Factories were closed or destroyed3. Transportation system was devastated.C. Agriculture1. Cotton fields now fields of weeds2. Livestock gone after northern invasion3. 1860-size crop not until 1870; much from new SouthwestD. Planter aristocrats devastated1. Value in slaves disappeared2. Many mansions destroyed or ruined
V. African Americans in the immediate post-Civil War SouthA. Freedmen’sBureau (created in 1865 by Congress)1. Headed by Gen. OliverO. Howard (later founded and served aspresident of Howard University in Washington D.C.)-- Members included many Northerners including former abolitionists who risked theirlives to help the freedmen in the South; one of several northern groups called "carpetbaggers" by white southern Democrats.2. Purpose:Tohelpunskilled,uneducated,poverty-strickenex-slavestosurvive3. Provided food, clothing, medicine & education to ex-slaves and poor whitesa. Taught about 200,000 blacks how to read; many eager to read the Bibleb. Negotiated labor agreements between freedmen and planters.4. Authorized to provide "40acresandamule"from confiscated or abandoned land to blacksettlers.a. In certain areas, the Bureau distributed no land.