Climate Change

Climate Change - Lecture 14 Surface Ocean Circulation:...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 14 Surface Ocean Circulation: Prevailing winds drive movement of surface ocean water forming wind-drift currents Forces Driving Surface Ocean Circulation o Prevailing winds make waves and wind-drift currents o Coriolis force causes currents to deflect clockwise (northern hemisphere) or counter-clockwise (southern hemisphere) and develop Ekman spirals o Continental margins deflect and guide currents Major Surface Wind Patterns o Winds only affect the water on the surface o Coriolis Effect due to Earths Rotation Deflection of Surface Water Flow Coriolis Effect leads to Ekman Transport (transfer of motion with water depth) o Western Boundary Currents - deep, narrow, fast o Western boundary currents; currents on the western side of the gyres, and are always moving towards to poles, and are carrying water that has been moving for a long time, and tend to be warm waters o 3 THIGNS TO REMEMBER CURRENTS EXTEND DOWN INTO THE OCEAN ~1KM Tend to be really narrow, and look and act like a river They are narrow and fast Gulf stream is the western boundary current for the north atlantic o Gulf Stream Eastern Boundary Currents - shallow, wide, slow o o Moving towards the equator, cold water o They are very shallow, though much broader o Currents are also much slower o California current is the eastern boundary current o California Current o OCEAN DYNAMIC SURFACE: EFFECTS OF EKMAN TRANSPORT AND ROTATION o Generalized Topography of Ocean Gyres o gravity balances coriolis effect o ONLY NEED TO KNOW CALIFORNIA CURRENT AND GULF STREAM Arctic Ocean Gyre Surface Ocean Currents and Upwelling o Boundary currents and offshore coastal winds create local coastal upwelling o Large-scale upwelling is associated with Equatorial Currents o Large-scale upwelling is associated with divergence of currents running past one another Coastal upwelling And downwelling. (Later we will see that upwelling bringsnutrients (food) to the ocean surface.) o Downwelling: the circulation/gravity pattern is forcing water down in the centers of the gyres, and these processes drive food circulation o Upwelling due to divergence of currents flowing past one another. EQUATORIAL UPWELLING o Lecture 15 Deep Ocean Circulation: The pattern of density-driven deep ocean current movement (thermohaline circulation) Thermohaline Circulation (need to remember) o As water gets denser, it starts to sag into the ocean. Increasing salinity As water gets denser, it starts to sag into the ocean....
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Climate Change - Lecture 14 Surface Ocean Circulation:...

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