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Bio test 3 review

Bio test 3 review - Gene Pool all the genes of all...

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Gene Pool: all the genes of all individuals in a population of interbreeding organisms. Population A group of sexually interbreeding or potentially interbreeding organisms, also called a deme. Gene A physical stretch of DNA encoding a trait. Allele A particular form of a gene. Hardy-Weinberg Principle (H-W) - For an infinitely large, panmictic population in which there are no outside influences and no mutations to or from the alleles involved, the ratio of gene frequencies will remain constant at their initial values for all subsequent generations. Required for H-W •There has to be random mating •There are no mutations •There is no migration into/out of population •The population is large ( no genetic drift ) Natural selection is NOT acting p = freq A, q = freq a p + q must = 1 p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 If in H-W, then % RR = p 2 , % Rr = 2 pq and % rr = q 2 •Allele frequency can be extended to populations Deviations from H-W – when microevolution occurs ? is lecture 16 on test 3? Animal Behavior •Increasing food supply (e.g., territoriality) •Reduce predation and competition (e.g., hiding/running) •Selecting habitats •Surviving harsh environments (e.g, nest building) •Selecting mates
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•Increasing offspring survival (e.g., parental care) •Defending territories •Cost–benefit analyses of behavior are based on the concept that animals have limited time and energy Required for adaptive traits or natural selection Variation in trait (individuals in a population Trait is heritable (genetic basis) 3. Results in differential survival and reproduction •Inland (slug-avoiders) snakes survived better and reproduced more than coastal (slug-eaters) in inland ponds Absence of behavior (or avoidance ) can be adaptive Behaviors affecting Fitness=Mating/Sex •Food, predator & parasite avoidance, refuge, etc. indirectly affect fitness •But mating behavior (acquisition of mates, offspring survival) directly affects fitness Costs of sexual reproduction •Mate location, energy costs, loss of gametes •Competition among males (usually) •Increased risk of predation/disease •Meiosis slower than mitosis
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