history lectures - Introduction Crusades Warfare and the Kingdom of Heaven A Offensive or Defensive Wars 1 What were the Crusades a Controversial

history lectures - Introduction Crusades Warfare and the...

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Introduction: Crusades, Warfare, and the Kingdom of Heaven A. Offensive or Defensive Wars: 1. What were the Crusades? a. Controversial definitions b. Goal of course c. Reading 1) One definition by modern historian: 2) "What we today call a crusade should be described as a war answering God's command, authorized by a legitimate authority, the pope, who by virtue of the power seen as vested in him as Vicar of Christ, identified the war's object and offered to those who undertook it full remission of the penalties of confessed sins and a package of related temporal privileges, including church protection of family and property, immunity from law suits and interest payments on debt. The beneficiary earned these grants by swearing a vow symbolized in a ritual adoption of a cross, blessed by a priest and worn on the recipient's clothing, the vow often being couched in terms parallel to those for a pilgrimage. The duration of the spiritual and temporal privileges was determined by the fulfillment of the vow, by absolution, or by death. Those dying in battle or otherwise in fulfillment of their vow could expect eternal salvation and to be regarded as martyrs." 3) Jonathan Riley-Smith 4) Challenges 2. Anders Breivik a. Norway in 2011 b. "Falsified information about the Crusades c. Belief that crusades were offensive rather than defensive is false 3. Rick Santorum a. Pennsylvania b. "Absolutely anti-historical" c. Fabrication of the Left d. Hatred for Christendom and Western Civilization 4. Mythology of Crusades as act of aggression a. Important to keep this argument in mind b. Official Crusades began in 1095 1) Proclaimed by Pope Urban I c. Previous four-and-a-half centuries 1) Muslim victories and need for defense 2) Context d. Crusaders view of their war 1) Not defensive 2) Goal to capture Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem 3) Seize sacred landscapes 4) Later Crusades defensive in nature B. Kingdom of Heaven: 1. Film showing Crusades as wars of aggression a. Sir Ridley Scott, Eva Green, Orlando Bloom, Liam Neeson, Ghassan Massoud b. Course not about film c. Film criticized widely d. Work of art 2. Balian of Ibelin (Orlando Bloom) a. Historical facts b. Born in Ibelin c. Son of Barisan of Ibelin d. Married to Maria Comnena e. Fought at Battle of Hattin f. Moral character 1) Retained wisdom and composure 2) Perfect knight 3) Ibn al-Athir
3. Saladin a. Muslim counterpart of King Baldwin IV b. Magnanimous but ruthless c. Romanticized philosopher king d. Walter Scott's novels The Talisman and Ivanhoe e. Events left out 1. Sufi mystics and Templars 2. Ransom 3. Breaks Hollywood stereotype of Muslim ruler 4. Mundane example a. Fire and trebuchets b. Kelly de Vries Parameters, Changing Images and Perceptions, and Realities A. Introduction: 1. Noble ventures a. Uses of Crusade terminology b. Bush and the Middle East c. Clinton at Georgetown d. Osama bin Laden and Mullah Omar e. Past use of the term 1. War film titled Pershing's Crusaders (1918) 2. The New Crusaders: With the British Forces on the Palestinian Front (1918) 3. Dwight D. Eisenhower and D-Day 4.

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