Introduction: Crusades, Warfare, and the Kingdom of HeavenA.Offensive or Defensive Wars:1.What were the Crusades?a.Controversial definitionsb.Goal of coursec.Reading1)One definition by modern historian:2)"What we today call a crusade should be described as a war answering God's command, authorized by a legitimate authority, the pope, who by virtue of the power seen as vested in him as Vicar of Christ, identified the war's object and offered to those who undertook it full remission of the penaltiesof confessed sins and a package of related temporal privileges, including church protection of family and property, immunity from law suits and interest payments on debt. The beneficiary earned these grants by swearing a vow symbolized in a ritual adoption of a cross, blessed by a priest and worn on the recipient's clothing, the vow often being couched in terms parallel to those for a pilgrimage. The duration of the spiritual and temporal privileges was determined by the fulfillment of the vow, by absolution, or by death. Those dying in battle or otherwise in fulfillment of their vow could expect eternal salvation and to be regarded as martyrs."3)Jonathan Riley-Smith4)Challenges2.Anders Breivika.Norway in 2011b."Falsified information about the Crusadesc.Belief that crusades were offensive rather than defensive is false3.Rick Santoruma.Pennsylvaniab."Absolutely anti-historical"c.Fabrication of the Leftd.Hatred for Christendom and Western Civilization4.Mythology of Crusades as act of aggressiona.Important to keep this argument in mind b.Official Crusades began in 10951)Proclaimed by Pope Urban Ic.Previous four-and-a-half centuries 1)Muslim victories and need for defense2)Contextd.Crusaders view of their war1)Not defensive2)Goal to capture Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem3)Seize sacred landscapes4)Later Crusades defensive in natureB.Kingdom of Heaven:1.Film showing Crusades as wars of aggressiona.Sir Ridley Scott, Eva Green, Orlando Bloom, Liam Neeson, Ghassan Massoudb.Course not about filmc.Film criticized widelyd.Work of art2.Balian of Ibelin (Orlando Bloom)a.Historical factsb.Born in Ibelinc.Son of Barisan of Ibelind.Married to Maria Comnenae.Fought at Battle of Hattinf.Moral character1)Retained wisdom and composure2)Perfect knight3)Ibn al-Athir
3.Saladina.Muslim counterpart of King Baldwin IVb. Magnanimous but ruthlessc. Romanticized philosopher kingd. Walter Scott's novels The Talisman and Ivanhoee. Events left out1. Sufi mystics and Templars2. Ransom3. Breaks Hollywood stereotype of Muslim ruler4. Mundane examplea. Fire and trebuchetsb. Kelly de VriesParameters, Changing Images and Perceptions, and RealitiesA. Introduction:1. Noble venturesa. Uses of Crusade terminologyb. Bush and the Middle Eastc. Clinton at Georgetownd. Osama bin Laden and Mullah Omare. Past use of the term1. War film titled Pershing's Crusaders (1918)2. The New Crusaders: With the British Forces on the Palestinian Front (1918)3. Dwight D. Eisenhower and D-Day4.