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gen Biology -1

gen Biology -1 - Biology 1001 Biology is the scientific...

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Biology 1001 Biology  is the scientific study of life.  Why study Biology? Understanding the natural world Understand how your body works Government policy All Organisms: (See unity of life, Table 1.1) Are composed of the same Substances Have the capacity to reproduce based on instructions in DNA Engage in metabolism Sense and respond to the environment Populations of organisms can change through time (evolve) All things are made up of the same units of matter Living things are made up of certain subset of molecules: Nucleic acids Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids DNA: Signature molecule of life Molecule of inheritance Directs assembly of amino acids, (the building blocks for protein.) Guides development Energy: Nothing lives without it It is the capacity to do work Metabolism = reactions by which cells acquire and use energy to grow, survive, and reproduce All energy comes from the sun. Producers (plants) absorb light and make their own food; consumers  (animals, humans) eat producers to get energy. Decomposers (fungi) break other things down.  Sensing and Responding Organisms sense changes in their environment and make responses to them Receptors      detect specific forms of energy (Stimuli ) Allows maintenance of homeostasis . (Or constant conditions) ( SEE CHART ON LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION) Diversity of Life Millions of living species Millions more now extinct Classification schemes attempt to organize diversity.  Three Domains  (from page 8) (The highest in classification) Eubacteria (bacteria) Archaebacteria (ancient bacteria) Both of these are called Prokaryotes  because they have no nucleus Eukaryota (Have a nucleus) Kingdoms (page 9) Protistans (single cell) Plants Fungi (heterotrophic = eat other organisms)  Animals (mobile for some part of their life cycle)
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Prokaryotic eukaryotic Single cell Single or multi-celled No nucleus or Nucleus and other organelles Organelles Larger, more complex Smaller, less Complex Eubacteria, Archaea How does Biological Diversity Arise? Mutation = change in sequence of nucleotides in DNA  – Ultimate source of variation in heritable traits Most are harmful, but some are helpful Adaptive trait = characteristic that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its environment. Evolution
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