Biology

Biology - 1) Artificial Selection a) Breeders are selective...

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1) Artificial Selection – a) Breeders are selective agents b) Individuals exhibiting favored traits are bred c) Favored traits become more common in population 2) Natural Selection a) Individuals vary in some heritable traits b) Some forms of heritable traits are more adaptive c) Ones w/ adaptive traits survive and reproduce d) Adaptive forms of traits b/c more common than the other forms 3) Antibiotic Resistance a) Antibiotics are used to kill bacteria b) Mutations for antibiotic resistance exist or arise c) Antibiotic-resistant bacteria survive and reproduce better than nonresistant d) Over time, proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria increases 4) The Nature of Scientific Inquiry a) Principles of Science i) All events can be attributed to natural causes (1) Do not evoke supernatural causes (2) Do not specifically exclude deity b) Natural laws apply at all times and places c) People perceive events in similar ways 5) Misconceptions about Science a) Scientists “prove” things b) “It is a just theory” c) Science vs. Religion 6) The Scientific Method a) Observation > Hypothesis > Experiment > Conclusions b) Something unexpected Happened > Explanation; if/then prediction > Controlled test; Challenge Prediction > Supports or doesn’t support hypothesis > if not then you run through more exp. 7) Scientific Experiments a) Control Group – variable being tested is absent b) Experimental Group – The variable being tested is present i) You compare the Control and Exp. Groups and analyze the test results ii) Next you must report the findings a) One group of mice was injected with a bacteria then injected w/ a bacteria phage, the 2 nd group of mice was injected w/ the bacteria, but not the bacteria phage. Chapter 2 Chemical Foundations for Cells Notes
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1) Elements a. Fundamental Forms of matter b. Can’t be broken apart by normal means c. 92 occur naturally on earth d. Most common in living organisms are Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen e. To help remember : “SCHNOP café with a pinch of NaCl” 2) What are Atoms? a. Smallest particles that retain the properties of an element b. c. Electron Shells – place where electrons orbit around the cell 3) Elements Differ in the number of Protons a. An element differs in the number of protons = the atomic number i. Has specific physical & chemical properties ii. Can’t be broken down by chemical reactions b. Atomic mass = number of protons + neutrons i. Isotopes vary in # of neutrons 4) Isotopes a. Atoms of an element w/ diff numbers of neutrons (diff mass numbers) b. Carbon 12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons c. Carbon 14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons (radioactive) 5) What determines whether Atoms will interact? a.
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Biology - 1) Artificial Selection a) Breeders are selective...

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