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Notes-1 - Chapter 16 Notes I. Definition of Acids and Bases...

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I. Definition of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius 1. Acids increase [H + (aq) ] 2. Bases increase [OH - (aq) ] 3. HCl+H 2 O H + (aq) +Cl - (aq) where the H + (aq) is really H 3 O + (aq) 4. HCl donates a proton B. Bronsted-Lowry 1. An acid donates a proton 2. A base accepts a proton 3. H 3 O + hydronium ion can be written as H + (aq) II. Conjugate-Acid Base Pairs A. NH 3(aq) +H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) +OH - (aq) 1. Ammonia is a weak base so it will be at equilibrium but it accepts a proton so it is a base 2. NH 4 is the conjugate acid and OH is the conjugate base B. When discussing how the products act as acids or bases, the word conjugate is placed in front of the acid or base C. HCl (aq) +H 2 O (aq) H 3 O + (aq) +Cl - (aq) 1. HCl is acting like an acid and water acts like a base 2. Water acts as an acid or a base so it is called amphoteric D. HX (aq) +H 2 O (l) X - (aq) +H 3 O + (aq) 1. HX acts as the acid and water acts as the base 2. X is the conjugate base and H 3 O is the conjugate acid 3. The acid from the left hand side pairs up with the conjugate base on the right hand side to form the conjugate acid-base pairs 4. The base from the left hand side pairs up with the conjugate acid on the right hand side to form another conjugate acid/base pair E. HNO 2(aq) +H 2 O (l) NO 2 - (aq) +H 3 O + (aq) 1. HNO 2 is the acid and the NO 2 is the conjugate base F. CH 3 CO 2 H (aq) +H 2 O (l) CH 3 CO 2 - (aq) +H 3 O + (aq) 1. Acid+ Base Conjugate base+ Conjugate base 2. K eq =10 -5 3. The equilibrium constant will determine if the acid or conjugate acid is stronger 4. If K<<1, mostly reactants but if K>>1, mostly products 5. The K is <<1 so mostly reactants so the H 3 O is the stronger acid than the CH 3 CO 2 H 6. Weaker acid+ weaker base stronger base+ stronger acid G. H 2 PO 4 - (aq) +F - (aq) HPO 4 2- (aq) +HF (aq) 1. Weak acid+ weak base strong base +strong acid 2. More reactants because H 2 PO 4 is the weaker acid III. Autoionization of Water A. H 2 O+H 2 O OH - (aq) +H 3 O + (aq) 1. K eq =[OH - ][H 3 O + ] 2. K w =1E-14 at 25°C 3. It is mainly reactants because K w is less than 1 B. If [H 3 O]=[OH]=1E-7M, solution is neutral 1. If [H 3 O]>1E-7M, [OH]<1E-7M, solution is acidic 2. If [H 3 O]<1E-7M, [OH]>1E-7M, solution is basic
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2008 for the course V 011 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '06 term at NYU.

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Notes-1 - Chapter 16 Notes I. Definition of Acids and Bases...

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