2.During this age, small patriarchal societies lived depending on cattle and gardening. a.After 1000 B.C.E., some of these groups pushed east into the Ganges Plain. 3.There was a bitter rivalry between two groups of people: the Aryas (light-skinned and of Indo-European languages) and the Dasas (dark-skinned and of Dravidian languages). a.The Aryas pushed the Dasas south into central and southern India, where their descendants still live. B.Over time, a system of varna (literally “color,” though eventually meant “class”) was created.1.Individuals were born into one of four classes: a.Brahmin: the group comprising of priests and scholars b.Kshatriya: warriors and officials c.Vaishya: merchants, artisans, and landowners d.Shudra: peasants and laborors (may have been reserved for the Dasas) 2.A fifth group was added called the Untouchables, which were excluded from the class system and avoided. 3.The Brahmin could explain why the hierarchy existed. a.They believed a primordial creature named Purusha allowed itself to be sacrificed. b.From its mouth came the Brahmin priests. c.From its arms came the Kshatriya warriors. d.From its thighs came the Vaishya landowners and merchants. e.From its feet came the Shudra workers. 4.Within the class divisions were subdivisions called jati, or birth groups. a.These are sometimes called castes. b.Each jati had its proper occupation, duties, and rituals, and only had interactions with their own group.