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Biology lecture notes - fall05

Biology lecture notes - fall05 - Chapter One Concepts and...

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August 24, 2005 Chapter One: Concepts and Methods in Biology Biology— o The scientific study of life o Lays the foundation for asking basic questions about life and the  natural world. Why study biology? o Understanding the natural world.  We are a part of it, and we rely  on the natural world. o Understand how your body works Medical decisions Diet o Citizenship Government policy We are involved in making decisions about studies and  research should be done. Unity of Life o All organisms: Are composed of the same substances  Molecules of Life o All things are made up of the same units of  matter o Living things are made up of a certain subset  of molecules Nucleic Acids Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Have the capacity to reproduce based on instructions in  DNA Engage in metabolism Nothing Lives without Energy o Energy = capacity to do work
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o Metabolism = reactions by which cells acquire  and use energy to grow, survive, and  reproduce. o Energy Flow: Sun  shines light on earth. Energy is captured by  Producers .  They  use sunlight to make their own food.  Consumers  eat the producers and they  take the energy as well as the nutrients  to run their own metabolic processes.  Consumers can ear producers directly  or they can eat other consumers. Nutrients are cycled between producers  and consumers. Decomposers  (bacteria and fungi)  break down the dead bodies or wastes  into original molecules. All energy will eventually be dissipated  in the form of heat. Question :  Organisms that make their  own food are consumers.  True or  False? False!  Organisms that make  their own food are Producers. Sense and respond to the environment Sensing and Responding o Organisms sense changes in their environment  and make responses to them. o Receptors  detect specific forms of energy  ( stimuli ). o Allows maintenance of  homeostasis , or  constant conditions. Populations of organisms can change through time (i.e.,  evolve) DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
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o Signature model of life o Molecule of inheritance—we use it to pass information to offspring. o Directs assembly of amino acids—directions for making up building  blocks of individual cells. o Guides development—changes in lifetime, or development, is  governed by information held within DNA molecule.  o Same materials, different instructions Levels of organization (Page 6) o Cell (can also be a single-celled organissm).
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