CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARYCalvinismoA version of Protestantism, founded by John Calvin, which is the root of Puritan doctrine. It was the foundation of the French Huguenots and the Scottish Presbyterians. Calvinism is essentially a really buttoned-up fundamentalist version of Christianity. It was unique in its predestination beliefs. PredestinationoThe belief that God has already determined who will go to hell and who will go to heaven. ConversionoA gift of God’s grace that Calvinists thought was given freely to the elect. Most people identified it as a very personal moment where they could immediately tell what their predetermined destiny was. PuritansoEnglish Calvinists who wanted to “purify” the Anglican Church. They were unhappy with the slow progress of reform in England and wanted the whole Anglican Church to be de-Catholicized. The people who founded Massachusetts Bay Colony were Puritans. SeparatistsoRadical Puritans, these people wanted to completely separate from theChurch of England. They felt this way because the Anglican church allowed all people, elect or damned, into the Church, thereby diluting its purity. The group that founded the Plymouth settlement was Separatist. Mayflower CompactoFirst informal constitution in the New World; basically an agreement to work for the good of the majority, rather than the good of the one. This was a good precedent for written constitutions of the future. The separatist puritans who eventually settled at Plymouth signed it. Massachusetts Bay ColonyoFounded separately from the Plymouth colony, Puritans founded it in 1630 on the site of Boston today. It was more prosperous than the Plymouth colony because it was better equipped, and eventually absorbed the surrounding Massachusetts communities because it was so powerful. Great MigrationoA huge movement of people from England to the New World, either forreligion, money, or a fresh start. AntinomianismoA polarizing belief in Puritanism that asserted if the people were already saved, there was no reason to follow any law of God or man. Anne Hutchinson preached this idea in Massachusetts Bay and was exiled to New York.
Fundamental OrdersoThe constitution of the Connecticut River Colony, written in 1639. It was important because it was the foundation for future Connecticut governments and a model for democratic governments. Pequot WaroConflict between the Pequot Indians and white people. The Natives lost, and the Pequot tribe was almost completely eradicated. King Philip’s WaroMetacom (King Philip) went from town to town in New England and set them on fire. He killed tons of people and destroyed twelve towns. He was beheaded for his crimes, but his fight would actually slow white expansion for a few years in New England.