Chapter 1-2

Chapter 1-2 - Chapter 1-2 Scientific Method o Observations...

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Chapter 1-2 - Scientific Method o Observations o Hypothesis o Experimentation Identify variables (only 1 per experiment) Controls Repeat to verify o Results Publish in a refereed journal (gives comments about results and eventually published) - Givens (should already know) o Chemical symbols= C, H, O, N, Cl, S, Na, P, K, Ca, Mg o Elements- a fundamental form of matter that has mass and takes up space, and cannot be degraded to something else by ordinary means o Atom- the smallest particles unique to each element, have one or more positively charged protons, negatively charged electrons, and (except hydrogen) neutrons. o Compound- consist of two or more different elements in proportions that never vary o Mixture- two or more elements or compounds intermingled in proportions that can and usually do vary o Bohr model o Rules of chemical equations - Whole= greater than sum of its parts - Reductionism-study of parts explains the whole - Chemical reactions and pathways govern cellular function - Chemical Elements o 25 required for life o 4- Critical (95%) N, O, C, H o 7-trace elements for Humans (1.5-.1%) - Review Atomic Structure o Protons (+) Positive In nucleus o Neutrons Neutral In Nucleus o Electrons (-) Negative Cloud outside nucleus
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- Atomic Number-Number of Protons - Atomic Weight= #of protons + # of neutrons - Isotope- number neutrons vary within the element - 12 C - 13 C - 14 C - 6+6+6 6+7+6 6+8+6 +n- +n= +n- - Radioactive Isotopes- an isotope that has an unstable nucleus and becomes more stabilized by spontaneously emitting energy and particles. o 14 C Used to study role of Co 2 in photosynthesis Used to date fossils o 123 I Check for abnormal thyroid function o 226 Ra & 60 Co Used to treat prostate and other localized cancers
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Chapter 1-2 - Chapter 1-2 Scientific Method o Observations...

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