Chem test 2

Chem test 2 - column 1A and 2A excluding H is the s-block...

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» column 1A and 2A excluding H is the s-block because the last shell in the electron configuration is S; the sub-shell is the row number » column 3A – 8A is the p-block » the middle 10 columns is the d-block; the shell # is the row#-1; they are called transition metals or transition elements and they complicated chemistry » S and P block form main group elements » 2 rows of 14 on the bottom are f-block; first row are the rare earth elements (lanthanum); the second row is trans-uranium elements (actinide) and don’t appear naturally (man-made) 1 st row: » H and He » electronically H is in column 1A » electronically He belongs in column 2A » H has no chemistry related to 1A and belongs to 7A chemically » chemically He is in 8A » columns are the same electronically and chemically 3 kinds of elements : 1. ) metals – most elements on the right side of the periodic table that make cations 2. ) non metals – elements found on the right side of the periodic table that make anions and have high ionization energy 3. ) metalloids – elements found in the middle that have properties of both metals and non metals and are very complicated Chemical and Physical Properties: Metals: Non-Metals: Physical » shiny solids » malleable, ductile (wire) » good conductors of electricity and heat » dull solids, liquids, or gases » solids are brittle » poor conductors of electricity and heat so they are insulators Chemical » oxides are ionic » oxide + water = base (basic an- hydrides) » cations – lose electrons » oxides are molecular » oxide + water = acid (acid an- hydride) » anions – gain electrons Chemical Properties : oxides-ionic vs. molecular » oxygen combines with every element » metals: oxides are ionic » non-metals: oxides are molecular » metals: oxides are basic » non-metals: oxides are acidic
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Metal: (Li) Non-metal (F) Ionization energy: 520 kg/mol 1681 kg/mol Electron affinity: -60 -328 » main group metals lose electrons to achieve nearest noble gas configuration » main group non-metals gain electrons to achieve noble gas configuration Reaction Descriptions : » metal + metal = alloy (not talking about) » metal + non-metal = salt (ionic compound and redox reaction) » non-metal + non-metal = molecule (covalent bond and redox reaction) » metal oxide + acid = salt + water » metal oxide + water = metal hydroxide » non-metal oxide + water = acid » non-metal oxide + base = salt + water 1A – Alkali Metals : » [core]ns1 – for cations only » electrons are easily lost » soft, shiny metals » typical reaction (m = 1A metals) » 2m + H2 = 2mH – hydrogen gains electron » 2m + S = m2S – reaction with any group 6 element » 2m + Cl2 = 2mCl – reaction with any group 7 element » 2m + 2H2O = 2mOH + H2 – reaction with water (exothermic) » 2m + O2 = m2O2 – reaction with oxygen (does not work with Li) 2A – Alkaline Earth Metals : » [core]ns2 » harder shiny metals » typical reactions: » m + H2 = mH2 – reaction with hydrogen Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Rd
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2008 for the course V 002 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '06 term at NYU.

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Chem test 2 - column 1A and 2A excluding H is the s-block...

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