ANTHRO - March 8 2006 Chapter 7 Political systems Cultural...

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March 8, 2006 Chapter 7: Political systems Cultural universals - All societies need to find ways of preserving social order - Control chaos - Develop customs and conventions shared by all to resolve disputes - To have leaders -Socio political systems are universals Different types of political systems/ organizations Types of political organizations - Elman service - Bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states Bands: least complex - Connected to foragers - Probably also the oldest political organization system - High value on getting along - Least amount of political interrogation-bands - Political decisions embedded in wider social structures- socio political - Leadership is informal - One or more men - Older men- age connected with wisdom - Headman can only persuade - Jug/ Hoansi of Kalahari- form of band Tribal societies: - Relatively more complex - Food producers - Large, dance, settles populations - Unlike bands, paintball sodalities connected several tribes Pan tribal societies: clan, age grades, and secret societies Chiefdoms: third most complex system - One leader is the chief - Position of leader is hereditary - Chiefs have enormous power- centralized and permanent officials with rank and power - Redistribution power- political economic State systems: - Most complex - Most formal - Kinship plays little role or no role - A “political” system - Method of social control
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- State can enforce authority with force March 10, 2006 Chapter 8 Marriage and Family Classical anthropological topic: - Kinship, marriage, and family - Early anthropological concentrated on these aspects of society - Kinship, family and marriage formed the basis of society Maria and family. What are they? - Every day terms but vague - Family- social unit - Economic cooperation - Management of reproduction and child rearing - Common resistance Marriage - Series of customs - Formalizes relationship between male and female adults in the family - Socially approved union - Regulates sexual and economic rights and obligations - Assumed to be permanent Definitions - Are general - Do not hold true for all cultures around the world - Assumes marriage is heterosexual - Eg: nadi of Kenya- female husband Functions of marriage and family - Created a fairly stable relationship between men and women - Regulates sexual mating, rights and regulations - Therefore regulates reproduction and child rearing - Regulates sexual division of labor - Provides family relationships witching which the needs of a child can be met. Who you cant have sex with - Cultural universals - Incest taboo - Prohibition against having sex with certain kin
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Natural aversion theory - Popular about 100 years ago - Relative members of the same family generally have an aversion to having sex with other members of the family Inbreeding theory - Harmful effects of inbreeding - Out breeding has positive genetic consequences, genetic variations, lower mortality rate Family disruption theory - Bronidlaw malinsky - Creates jealousy and discord with the family - Role ambiguity- mother and son - Child is also half brother, mother is also grandmother Theory of expanding social alliances -
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