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Unformatted text preview: ***( SORRY , NOTHING FROM T EST 1)**** ANTHROPOLOGY (Test 2) Unit 2 - Notes Old World : Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia New World : North America, South America Primates • Descriptive (early studies) • Observational (long-term studies (years))- Diane Fossey – Mountain Gorillas- Jane Goodall – chimpanzees (“rocked” the scientific world)- Birate Goldikas – Brindamous – orangutans • Theoretical : - Socioecology – environmental and social organization- Sociobiology – natural selection and behavior (Can behavior be tied to inheritable traits?) • Comparative Approach – perspective for studying primates. Examples : genetics, behavior, etc. Primate Characteristics • Generalized : one that hasn’t changed from the ancestral condition. (a.k.a. “primitive” – kind of derogatory) • Specialized : specific to a group or species, it has changed from ancestral condition, and often has evolved as a result to specific adaptations/functions. Examples : - # of digits in mammals (5) = ancestral condition- Modern Primates (5) = generalized characteristic- Modern cows and horses (2, 1, respectively for stability/support of quadrepedal) = specialized characteristic • Social Organizations :- Solitary – live alone (adult males); ex: Tarsiers and Orangutans- Monogamy – pair bonds: form pair for life, will include offspring (like family unit); ex: Tarsiers, NWM, Gibbons, etc.- Multi-male/multi-female groups – (most common) – “ Fission-Fusion :” coming together, breaking apart. “ Fluid :” moving together. ; Ex: NWM, OWM, chimpanzees, etc.- Male/multi-female : only 1 adult male – “Harems:” 1 male, bunch of females. Limbs and Locomotion • Erect posture (esp. when sitting) • Hands and feet (primates – 5 digits)- Prehensile : ability to grasp (opposable thumb and big toe)- Primates have nails instead of claws- Highly developed sensory nerves in tips of digits- Flexible limb structure Locomotion: (not all or nothing) • Quadrupedal:- Knuckle-walkers ex: chimpanzees- Slow climbers • Vertical Clinging/Leaping: ex: Tarsiers, Prosimians Senses and the Brain • Diurnal : active during the day, resting at night- Increased reliance on vision (as opposed to smell or touch)- Color- Depth perception- Anterior eyes (facing forward)- Decreased reliance on smell- Snout size – primates have a reduced snout- Olfactory structures- Complex brain (larger brains compared to body size) Maturation, Learning, and Behavior • K-selected (primates in general) vs. R-selected- K – have few offspring, much parental investment, longer lifespan, and longer gestation.- R – have many offspring, little parental investment, shorter lifespan, and shorter gestation....
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- Spring '06
- homo erectus, East Africa