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Abnormal Unit 3

Abnormal Unit 3 - I Mood Disorders Two ends of a continuum...

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I. Mood Disorders Two ends of a continuum: Depression----------------Mania (Low, sad state) (Breathless euphoria/energy) Anhedonia: without pleasure in things that normally would bring it Unipolar depression: One pole…Mood returns to normal when depression lifts Bipolar: alternating periods of depression/mania Prevalence: Similar in Canada, England, France, and many other countries (rate steadily increasing since 1915 in westernized cultures ) Women twice as likely as men 50% will recover within six weeks, some without treatment Symptoms : Emotional (miserable, empty, humiliated) Motivational (lacking drive, initiative) Behavioral (less active) Cognitive (pessimism) Physical (headaches, dizziness) Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder 1) Major depressive episode (5 or more symptoms lasting 2+ weeks) o Weight loss/gain o Loss of energy o Suicidal thoughts o Low mood 2) No history of mania Dysthymic disorder : symptoms are “mild but chronic” (2+ years). When this leads to major depressive disorder, sequence is called double depression Causes: Stress may be a trigger (depressed people have a greater number of stressful life events during the month prior to onset of symptoms) Genetic factors: o Family pedigree, twin, adoption studies suggest a predisposition is inherited o Identical twins: 46%, Fraternal: 20% Biochemical factors: o Medications for high blood pressure accidentally lowered depression o Increasing Serotonin and norepinephrine helps interaction between chemicals o Endocrine system (hormone release) finds abnormal levels of cortisol (stress) and melatonin (sleep cycles)
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o Limitations: Measuring brain activity is difficult. Cause/effect unclear Treatments : Antidepressants o MAO inhibitors (1 st generation) Stops break down of norepinephrine and raises levels BUT pose serious blood pressure danger with certain foods o Tricyclics (1 st generation) increases norepinephrine BUT Risk of death if overdosed o Serotonin based…Prozac (2 nd generation, used first) Affect NT less so less side effects ECT only for extreme cases…causes brain seizure (finds some improvement but can cause some memory loss) Are SSRI’s over-prescribed? NO: Aren’t addictive, simply bring depressed people to the same functioning as normal people. YES: May be hidden side-effects. Would be a shit load of people if prescribed to everybody who “needs” it. Why does everyone need to be balanced? Edgar Allen Poe, Karl Marx Models of Unipolar Depression: Psychodynamic: o Link between depression and grief (regresses to oral stage) o Strengths: Early loss CAN set stage for later depression and improperly met needs increases susceptibility o Weaknesses: Mostly from case studies, inconsistent research, not as effective as medication Behavioral: o Experience a loss of rewards o Therapy: Increases pleasurable activities and events or help improve social skills o Limitations: Not effective unless combined
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Abnormal Unit 3 - I Mood Disorders Two ends of a continuum...

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