Abnormal Unit 2

Abnormal Unit 2 - Anxiety Disorders Most common mental...

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Anxiety Disorders Most common mental disorder in U.S. (18% of adults experience anxiety disorders annually) Anxiety high in co-morbid disorders (second disorder comes as a result of anxiety, aka alcohol abuse) Distinguishing fear from anxiety? Fear is a state of serious alarm Anxiety is alarm to a vague sense of a threat Both have physiological effects Is fear/anxiety response adaptive? Yes, flight or flight protects HOWEVER in inappropriate situations the response can disable Six Disorders (learn symptoms of each): Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Phobias Panic Disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Acute stress disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 1. Panic Disorder Short bouts, occur suddenly and pass Often comes with fear of death or loss of control Happens in absence of real threat Diagnoses: Experience dysfunctional changes in thinking/behavior because of attacks Recently found link to agoraphobia Diagnoses: Panic disorder with agoraphobia, panic disorder without agoraphobia Likely to develop in late adolescence and early adulthood Women twice as likely as men 35% with panic disorders are in treatment Biological Perspective: Panic disorders were helped mostly by antidepressants (50% recover fully) Neurotransmitter at work is norepinephrine (irregular in people with attacks) NT not clearly understood…may be excessive or deficient activity, other NTs seem to be involved Norepinephrine abnormality: Identical twins = 24%, Fraternal twins = 11%
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Drug therapies: Break the cycle of attack anticipation fear but some benzodiazepines are potentially addictive Combination of medications and behavioral exposure most effective Cognitive Perspective: Recognize biology is only a part of attacks “Panic reactions are experienced by people who misinterpret bodily events” Says panic-prone people are overly sensitive (sensations may be more frequent or intense) Therapy tries to correct misinterpretations of sensations o Educate about panic in general, causes of bodily sensations o Teach clients to apply more accurate interpretations o Teach skills for coping (relaxation, breathing) May try to induce feelings of panic (jumping, running) to practice skills Cognitive treatment is harder for disorders with agoraphobia 2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessions: persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses that feel foreign (dirt, violence, sexuality) Compulsions: repeated and rigid behaviors or mental acts, feel mandatory and may be recognized as irrational (cleaning, checking, order, touching) Not all experience both O and C but most do Classified as anxiety (obsessions raise anxiety, compulsions lower) Equal among men and women 40% seek treatment Diagnosis: Feel excessive/unreasonable Cause great distress Consume considerable amounts of time Interfere with daily functions
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  • Spring '08
  • Breitenstein
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, Psychological Stress Disorders

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Abnormal Unit 2 - Anxiety Disorders Most common mental...

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