EvolDevopment - – Genetic programming • Commitment of...

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1 Evolution and Development • Creationism vs evolution • Change over generations in the frequencies of various genes in a population • Change occurs through mutations, recombinations and any new genes that are successfully reproduced • Artificial selection limits reproduction to animals that possess a desired trait, ensuring its survival Sociobiology Seeks functional explanations for why a behavior is useful and is favored by natural selection Sociobiology can be criticized when practitioners assume that a behavior is adaptive and then propose an explanation without testing it Development • Zygote to adult organism • Remarkably similar in all animals • Three principles: – Movement (morphogenesis; morphogens) – Cell division (mitosis, mitogens)
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Unformatted text preview: – Genetic programming • Commitment of cells: potency – Totipotent; pluripotent (stem cells) Stages of development •Zygote •morula •blastula •gastrula •Further development: –Cell layers: organs –Brain 2 6 week human embryo 5 weeks 14 weeks 20 weeks Human evolution • Concurrent evolution – Grasping hand (65 my); use of tools – Bipedal locomotion (6 my) – Big brain (0.1-0.2 my) – Clearly not true – Socialization, meat eating (Stanford, USC) • psychosocial evolution (Huxley) – About 40,000 yrs ago 3 Development of connections • Sperry – Frog; newt • Trophic factors • Number of neurons – Overproduction; apoptosis – Hubel & Weisel: kittens...
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EvolDevopment - – Genetic programming • Commitment of...

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