Exam 1 Key a

Exam 1 Key a - a *' a f F f, ’15 x/ r BISCIPSYC 230Lg...

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Unformatted text preview: a *' a f F f, ’15 x/ r BISCIPSYC 230Lg First Midterm Spring 2007 / [<1 J, t. it Name lD number The lecture portion of this exam has 11 pages and 73 questions. Please be sure that you have a complete examination. Please enter your answers for questions 1- 73 on the blue machine-grading forms that we shall supply. Be sure to enter your name and student ID. Enter your TA in column K using the code that will be provided at the exam. Answers to the unnumbered question on page 8 should be written in the space provided on the exam. Good luck with the exam, from all of us on your teaching staff. TrueIFalse questions. On the form, True = 1, False = 2. These are worth 1 pt each. 1. Descartes rejected the long held View that sensation was conveyed to the brain through fluids, and argued instead that levers and gears — machine-er operations — provided the basis of sensory awareness and other cognitive activities. 2. Decartes was a “monist,” who believed that all mental activities could be explained in machine—like terms. 3. Galvani provided evidence that some form of electricity mediated the activity of nerves and muscles, rather than fluid pressure. 4. The concept of functional specialization of the brain was supported by Broca’s observation that damage in a specific area of the left frontal cortex produces a language disorder in which the person speaks fluently but makes no sense, generating so called “word salad.” 5. Muller is best known for his “doctrine of specific nerve energies.” A key aspect of this principle is that sensory information is determined by which nerve is activated. If the optic nerve conveys the informa- tion, the resulting perception is visual, whereas the auditory nerve produces the perception of sound, etc. 6. Since the invention of the microscope, it has been clear to everyone that the tissues of the body, in; cluding the brain, are composed of cells, because one can see neurons packed together tightly like cobble— stones in the street. 7. Information (influence) is most commonly passed into the neuron through the dendrites, and that neuron communicates with other neurons or muscles through the axon. 8. Stimulation of a dermatome of the skin will send spikes up a nerve and into the spinal cord via the ventral root, which may elicit reflexes in which the commands to the muscles exit the spinal cord via the dorsal root. Name F 9. The sensory homunculus of primary somatosensory cortex (81) provides a map of the body, where the amount of cortex is proportional to the size of the body region that is served. 10. For many centuries it was thought that the images being sent from the retina might be registered, F i.e., topographically mapped, onto primary visual cortex. Only with the invention of new imaging methods has it been shown that the connections are not topographic. / 11. Sensory input from one ear goes to both hemispheres, with the strength of the signal being some I what stronger to the opposite hemisphere. 12. Work on re 'onal s ecialization of cortex has found that lar e onions that were thou ht to be for / 8'1 P g P g I memory storage have sensory and/ or motor functions instead. I 13. An example of reassignment of function involves the hippocampus, which originally was thought to be involved in memory, but now appears to be needed for interpretation of language. .e-r 14. The electrical properties of membranes are based on “ionization,” wherein the positive ions are kept outside the cell and the negative ions are in greater abundance inside the cell. /" 15. As explained by Greene, whether the inside electrode is positive or negative depends on whether the I membrane is more permeable to K+ or to Na+. fl 16. In the resting state, the membrane is more permeable to Na+ than to K+. 17. Generation of an “action potential,” aka a “spike” in a neuron is produced mainly by a temporary opening of N a-f- channels. 18. The spike is generated in the membrane of the neuron’s cell body, but not in the fine branches of ; fl = jthe neuron — these being the dendrites and axon(s). \ 3s LEA 19. In addition to opening Na+ channels to generate the explosive depolarization that we describe as a F spike, there is a lagging decrease in K+ permeability that more quickly returns the membrane to its resting potential. 20. One reason a spike is said to be “all or none” is that once the stimulus is greater than needed to gen- erate the spike, it can be larger and the spike itself will not be any bigger. Therefore the spikes that are re" i corded from a given neuron will all have the same amount of peak depolarization. / 21. One can record the spike, but not the resting membrane potential, using a fine needle wherein the ? tip is not insulated and is near the cell that is generating the spike. .4 22. The ability for the eye to form an image of the external world depends on the presence of the retina. [/- Without the retina, no image can be formed. _/ 23. A pinhole camera will provide a sharp image of objects, no matter at what distance from the camera l the objects lie. Name 24. The vertebrate eye adjusts for the distance of objects by moving the lens forward or backward until the image is sharp upon the retina. 25. Greene said that the basic reason that our rods and cones respond to the wavelengths that we call light, is because water and air are relatively transparent to those wavelengths. 26. Combining red light with green light yields a mixture that looks yellow. 27. One can see a wavelength that lies between red and blue as magenta because this wavelength stimu— lates both the red and blue cones. 28. Mixtures of light primaries yield the perception of intermediate colors that appear less saturated, i.e., the hue is less intense. 29. The major evidence that Hering used to support his Opponent Theory of color vision was to show that one could mix red light with green light to produce the perception of yellow. 30. Although there is psychological evidence that is consistent with Opponent Theory, recordings taken from the neurons of the retina have not provided any support. Therefore, to the extent that it has merit, the mechanisms must begin at a later stage, likely in cortex. 31. Greene speculated that color opponency is designed to help distinguish objects from their back- ground. Color vision developed in ocean waters, where opposition of blue and nonblue (yellow) provided a boost to this process. Similar arguments can be made for development of red/ green opposition. ““\ V ‘nv\*‘\4\‘\ ‘\\ light falling in a ring that surrounds the center will excite the cell. 33. The concept behind the use of receptive fields for edge detection is based on having a balance be— tween the activation of central and surround regions of the receptive field, wherein light that is spread uni- formly across the entire field does not change the firing rate of the cell. 7/ 32. If the center of the receptive field of a ganglion cell responds to light by suppression of firing, then ’7/ boundary markers, and not necessarily other attributes such as curvature. I/7 34. Greene argued that an effective mechanism for shape recognition would need to specify position of If 35. Greene argued in support of “feature analysis,” and said that so called “metric theories” won’t work. Multiple Choice Questions. Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. These questions are worth 2 points each. f 36. Who delineated the issues for the “mind / body” problem — now known as the “mind/ brain” problem? D a. Muller b. Sherrington c. Galvani d. Descartes e. Golgi Name 37. According to Hubel & Wiesel, what kind of stimulus would be required for a “simple cell” to respond? Pt 38. 6 39. 41. 42. a. the stimulus would need to be an elongated bar or edge b. the bar or edge would need to be at a particular orientation c. the bar or edge would need to be at a particular location of the retina d. all the above e. none of the above At what location in the retina does a stimulus first produce action potentials? a. rods b. cones c. bipolar cells d. amaCrine cells e. ganglion cells What kind of color deficit would produce blue/ yellow confusion? a. protanopsia b. deuteranopsia c. tritanopsia d. achromatopsia e. none above What name do psychologists use to describe the family of photopigments in cones? a. rhodopsin b. iodopsin c. chromatopsia d. multi—opsins e. none above Which is a “light primary” for the nichromatic (component) theory of color vision? a. magenta b. white c. yellow d. green e. cyan What name was given to the visual pigment shortly after it was discovered? a. photopsin b. iodopsin c. rhodopsin d. retinal e. none of the above . Who demonstrated that light was composed of all the colors of the rainbow? 21. Einstein b. Purkinje c. Helmholtz d. Hering e. Newton (_ Name 44. Which ion is most permeable one millisecond after a spike has been generated? a. sodium b. potassium c. chloride d. sodium and potassium are equally permeable e. it depends on whether a positive or a negative spike has been generated . The proper name for bending of light by a prism or lens is: a. confluxation b. photon dysplasia c. diffraction d. defraction e. none of the above 46. Which structure of the eye is responsible for controlling the amount of light that can enter? a. cornea b. iris c. lens d. retina e. optic nerve Which 0p1ion(s) is (are) pertinent for generation of a membrane potential? a) ionization of sodium and potassium b) concentration gradients of sodium and potassium c) level of membrane permeability to sodium d) level of membrane permeability of potassium c) all the above 48. Which structure did Greene describe as the “switchboard” of the brain? a. basal ganglia b. hippocampus c. pineal body (gland) d. corpus callosum e. thalamus 49. Among the following options, which has a cortical structure? a. cerebellum b. basal ganglia c. thalamus d. pineal gland e. medulla oblongata 50. The speed of COnduction through a reflex arc is tential. a. equal to b. faster than the speed of conduction of an action po- c. slower than £1. modified by Name 51. Which of the following would produce temporal summation? <3 chosen: Present two or more weak stimuli at the same time. Present an excitatory and an inhibitory stimulus at the same time. Do not allow a flexor muscle to relax before stimulating it again. Present a rapid sequence of weak stimuli. 52. What decays as it travels along the membrane of a neuron? 63 go 5"» an action potential, but not an EPSP an EPSP, but not an action potential both an action potential and an EPSP neither an action potential nor an EPSP 53. What ordinarily prevents extensor muscles from contracting at the same time as flexor muscles? a. b. C c. d the ligaments and tendons that bind them together learned patterns of coordination in the cerebral cortex inhibitory synapses in the spinal cord Both muscles are controlled by different branches of the same axon. 54. Loewi demonstrated that synapses operate by the release of chemicals. He did this by: a. b. C. d. applying adrenaline directly to the heart muscle. collecting fluid from a stimulated frog's heart, transferring it to another frog's heart and measuring that heart rate. measuring the speed of a dog's reflexes While the dog was under the influence of various drugs. applying an extract of marijuana in eye drops and discovering that it dilated the pupils. 55. After a meal that was rich in the amino acid tryptophan, which neurotransmitter level would be increased the most? a. C b. a. dopamine c. serotonin endorphin d. nitric oxide 56. Within the presynaptic terminals, neurotransmitters are stored in the calcium gates. c. vesicles. Nodes of Ranvier. C, b. d. clefts. 57. In most cases, how many neurotransmitters does a single neuron release? 9-9 are only one neurotransmitter dozens of neurotransmitters several neurotransmitters, with each axon branch releasing a different one several neurotransmitters, with each axon branch releasing the same combination 58. Compared to hormones, neurotransmitters: a b. c. d. are slower. affect only the closest receptors. are excitatory, Whereas hormones are inhibitory. are inhibitory, Whereas hormones are excitatory. Name 59. A general effect of over-the-counter cold remedies is that they: a. stimulate dopamine receptors. b. decrease activity of the somatic nervous system. D c. increase activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. d. increase activity of the sympathetic nervous system. 60. Endocrine glands: release substances out of the body. release hormones into the circulatory system. absorb waste products from the blood. are also known as sweat glands. 53-997!” 61. Which of the following hypothetical chemicals would most likely be considered a hormone? a. Test—is-easy, a chemical released locally by neurons in the hippocampus that facilitates learning and memory b. Sweat—be-gone, a chemical released by the sweat glands that causes evaporation of C sweat c. Tan-am-I, a Chemical released by the pituitary that turns your skin brown d. Thin—Lam, a short-acting appetite suppressant released by the hypothalamus 62. The pituitary gland: a. modifies the activity of the hypothalamus. b. is not really a gland. C c. has influence over many other glands. d. is actually composed of many distinct glands. 63. CRl-I causes ACTH to be released from the anterior pituitary, which causes the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands. Cortisol is part of a negative feedback system involving the hypothalamus. Which of the follong would most likely result from an injection of dexamethasone, a very potent drug similar to cortisol? 21. increased cortisol levels (5 b. decreased cortisol levels c. increased CRH levels d. increased ACTH levels Name Definitions. (3 points each) Define each of the following with a phrase or brief sentence. These answers should not be written on the blue sheets; use the space below instead. Please don’t write outside the boundaries of the boxes; to do so will annoy the graders, which is probably not to your advantage. 3- paracrine b. adrenal cortex Ct chromaffin can -+ a L s C. " :1) ‘1 fire)“wa ' la. «- c “u x )3 LL “IL-a (£3.31, LO Jag?) , Cali, BISC 230 Lab Quiz #1 b Total Points Possible: 20 l This quiz has three pages and ten questions. Begin answering on lir@ {Ll , Each question is worth 2 points. Please enter your answers on the blue machine- grading forms. 64. Which of the following is not true about the scientific method? a. The scientific method is a process that begins with making observations. b. “Deductive reasoning” is the process of starting with a general statement and aking a specific prediction. L Quote the experiment is done, results should be analyzed and the same experiment should be repeated with a modified hypothesis. d. To plan a proper experiment, one should read the previously published literature on the subject. 65. A hypothetical research experiment hypothesized that female USC students were more likely to wear blue jeans than male USC students. An accurate description of the basic variables in this research would be: a. Independent variable = likelihood of wearing blue jeans; dependent variable 3 gender; controlled variable = weather. b. Independent variable 1 weather; dependent variable : gender; 9 controlled variable = likelihood of wearing blue jeans. 0. Independent variable = weather; dependent variable = likelihood of wearing blue jeans; controlled variable = gender. Cadependent variable = gender; ependent variable = likelihood of wearing biuejeans; controlled variable = weather. 66. Let’s imagine that you have a cell phone, that it is in your hand, and that it is presently set to vibrate. Were it to ring right now, which kind of sensory receptor cells in your skin would be firing the most action potentials in response to the vibration? a Tympanic cells (2) wacim'an corpuscles c. Thompson’s ccrpuscles d. Meissner’s corpuscles BISC 230 Lab Quiz #1 Total Points Possible: 20 67. In this midsagittal View of the sheep brain, the box is pointing to the structure know as the: eerebetlum corpus callosum Nth ’i :3 i ventriclem 3: medulla lllrd ventricle a. pons b. midbrain c. thalamus hypothalamus 68. What do we term a broad hypothesis that has been extensively tested by many different researchers and has generally accepted to be true. a. theorem b. lema c. axiom © theory e. principle 69. In the figure above, which structure is immediately superior to the medulla? a. The midbrain The pens . The pineal body (1. The thalamus 70. In the figure below of the spinal ganglion and nerve roots, where would you expect to find the largest abundance of motor neuron cell bodies? a. 1 b. 2 c 3 10 BISC 230 Lab Quiz #1 Total Points Possible: 20 71. In reference to the figure below, identify the lobes of the brain. a. 1. parietal 2. frontal 3. temporal 4. occipital b. l. occipital 2. frontal 3. temporal 4. parietal 1. temporal 2. frontal 3. parietal 4. occipital d. 1. frontal 2. parietal 3. temporal 4. occipital 72. What is the proper name of the special synapse at the termination of a motor cell on a skeletal muscle fiber? a. Excitatory synapse Neuromuscular junction c. Node of Ranvier d. Dorsal root ganglion 73. Identify the structure labeled by the box. temporal lobe ol the cerebral cortex olfactory bulb / cerebellum “(3* ‘fi medulla a. the hypothalamus c Schwann cells b. the olfactory cortex The optic chiasm 11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2008 for the course BISC 230LXG taught by Professor Mcclure,greene during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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Exam 1 Key a - a *' a f F f, ’15 x/ r BISCIPSYC 230Lg...

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