MolBio - Molecular biology genetics Genotype phenotype Central dogma DNA RNA proteins Enzymes Structural proteins Hormones Other regulatory proteins

MolBio - Molecular biology genetics Genotype phenotype...

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1 Molecular biology: genetics Genotype, phenotype Central dogma • DNA RNA proteins – Enzymes – Structural proteins – Hormones Other regulatory proteins – Receptors Genetic confusion Alleles: 2 per gene Homozygous, heterozygous Dominant, recessive Pleiotropy: many effects per gene Environmental factors Multiple genes: more genes per effect
2 Pleiotropy Hydrangea Environmental effects Incomplete dominance (aka incomplete penetrance)