MotorDisease

MotorDisease - – Development of sinemet The Basal Ganglia...

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1 Diseases of the Nervous System Numerous Very expensive No. 1 cost in all industrialized nations Two major divisions: Neurological Psychiatric Major psychiatric disorders Parkinson’s Disease • James Parkinson, 1817 • 72 yr old male • Incidental to old age, rather than a medical condition. • Weakness in left arm about 11 yr ago • Right arm similarly about three yr later • Convulsive motions of whole body soon thereafter. • Three years later his legs were affected. • Lately his bowels were very much retarded.
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2 Causation • Genetics – Long felt to have no heritability – C. Waters, USC: occasional family – Some now seen – Racially related: white males • Environment – Probably, but unknown; toxin suspected. • Anatomy – loss of caudate nucleus Role of dopamine • Decreased DA in autopsy brains • Decreases correlate with age and severity • Useful when DA was recognized as a NT • Treatment – DA alone did not work – No help for symptoms; caused hypertension – DOPA worked well
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Unformatted text preview: – Development of sinemet The Basal Ganglia 3 Loose ends • The Frozen Addicts – W. Langston – Contra Costa county, 1980’s – Discovery of MPTP – Value in research D2Receptors DA terminals Other therapies • Tissue transplantation – Poorly reproducible; now works – Controversial • Source of tissue • Dopaminergic retinal tissue • Stem cells • Deep brain stimulation – Internal pallidum; STN – Co-morbidity • Smoking or coffee reduce risk of Parkinson’s – (unbelievable, but true) 4 Fetal tissue implanted in 3/88 Start here… Neurodegenerative diseases • Motor system – Parkinson’s – Huntington’s – ALS, many others • Other systems – Multiple sclerosis – Alzheimer’s Huntington’s disease . Pedigrees from Lake Maracaibo Nancy Wexler, Columbia Univ . 5 Multiple sclerosis. Lesions at arrows. Alzheimer’s disease. Note the sulcal broadening in the left (AD) brain. Localization of β-amyloid protein using PET scans....
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2008 for the course BISC 230LXG taught by Professor Mcclure,greene during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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MotorDisease - – Development of sinemet The Basal Ganglia...

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