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MotorDisease - – Development of sinemet The Basal Ganglia...

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1 Diseases of the Nervous System Numerous Very expensive No. 1 cost in all industrialized nations Two major divisions: Neurological Psychiatric Major psychiatric disorders Parkinson’s Disease James Parkinson, 1817 72 yr old male Incidental to old age, rather than a medical condition. Weakness in left arm about 11 yr ago Right arm similarly about three yr later Convulsive motions of whole body soon thereafter. Three years later his legs were affected. Lately his bowels were very much retarded.
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2 Causation • Genetics – Long felt to have no heritability – C. Waters, USC: occasional family – Some now seen – Racially related: white males • Environment – Probably, but unknown; toxin suspected. • Anatomy – loss of caudate nucleus Role of dopamine Decreased DA in autopsy brains Decreases correlate with age and severity Useful when DA was recognized as a NT • Treatment – DA alone did not work – No help for symptoms; caused hypertension – DOPA worked well
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Unformatted text preview: – Development of sinemet The Basal Ganglia 3 Loose ends • The Frozen Addicts – W. Langston – Contra Costa county, 1980’s – Discovery of MPTP – Value in research D2Receptors DA terminals Other therapies • Tissue transplantation – Poorly reproducible; now works – Controversial • Source of tissue • Dopaminergic retinal tissue • Stem cells • Deep brain stimulation – Internal pallidum; STN – Co-morbidity • Smoking or coffee reduce risk of Parkinson’s – (unbelievable, but true) 4 Fetal tissue implanted in 3/88 Start here… Neurodegenerative diseases • Motor system – Parkinson’s – Huntington’s – ALS, many others • Other systems – Multiple sclerosis – Alzheimer’s Huntington’s disease . Pedigrees from Lake Maracaibo Nancy Wexler, Columbia Univ . 5 Multiple sclerosis. Lesions at arrows. Alzheimer’s disease. Note the sulcal broadening in the left (AD) brain. Localization of β-amyloid protein using PET scans....
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