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Zoology Notes 2 - Chapter 2 The Origin and Chemistry of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 The Origin and Chemistry of Life A. Elements Some of the Most Importam Elements in Living Organisms ‘ 1. Matter - 2. Atoms (0) Atomic Structure Deuterium (2H) Hydrogen (H) Tritium (3H) ( b) | 5010 peg The Origin and Chemistry of Life 9 (c) che’r Rule B. Chemical Bonds 1. Ionic Bonds 10 The Origin and Chemistry of Life 2. Covolen’r Bonds (o) Nonpoior Covolem‘ Bonds Hydrogen atom Carbon atom Methane (CH4) (b) Polar Covolen’r Bonds Hydrogen Hydrogen The Origin and Chemistry of Life 1 i ((3) Hydrogen Bonds Water molecule ' 3— Hydrogen bond C. ACIDS BASES SALTS AND BUFFERS i. Acids Acids 2. Boses Bases 3. Solis Solis 12 The Origin and Chemistry of Life Rafi“ Wine. “ 5. Buffers Buffers The Origin and Chemistry of Life 13 D. Water 1. Water Distribution 2. Special Properties Cl High Specific Heat a High Heat of Vaporization El Solvent Properties :1 High Surface Tension a Unique Density Behavior 14 The Origin and Chemistry of Life E. Organic Molecules of Life Free Sugar Group H o \ // c l H—C—OH | Ho—c|:—H Ho—c—H | H—CIS—OH H—C—OH Galactose H H H—(ID—OH é=o HO—é— H H——-C[3—OH H—CIJ—OH H—(ll—OH Fructose H 1. Carbohydrates (a) Monosaccharides (b) Disaccharides (c) Polysaccharides The Origin and Chemistry of Life 15 2. Lipids Stearic acid Glycerol Stearin (3 mol) (1 mol) (1 mol) . I C17H35CO OH H O—CH2 c17H35c00—CH2 (a) Triglycerides C17H3500 0H + HO~CH —.“‘>C17H35COO—CH + 3H20 0,7H35co OH *3 O—CHZ C17H35COO—CH2 o H H3C—~(CH2)14—C—O—C—H 0 ll CHg—O—C—~(CH2)16—-CH3 o CHZ—O—C—(CH2)12—CH3 || CHa—(CH2)7—-CH =CH—(CH2)7— COOH Oieic acid CHs—(CH2)4-—CH=CH—CH2——CH=CH—(CH2)7—COOH Linoleic acid (b) Phospholipids CHa @I HQC—NwCH3 Choline I group 1% ?“2 O H I | QTP—O—CHg—C—CHz—O 63%| | =0 0 o / I H20\ O=C\ CH2 CH2 H C/ / 2 \ HZC\ CH2 CH2 H 0/ / 2 H20 \ \ /CH2 /CH2 H26 H H20 \C/ Palmitoyl \CH H Oleoyl group / 2 C group H2C / \ \ H c H - /CH2 2 \ (c) Sieronds H20 CH2 \ H C/ CH2 2 / \ HZC /CH2 M. \ H c has CH2 2 / \CH H20\ / 2 CH3 H20\ CH3 1 6 The Origin and Chemistry of Life 3. Proteins Peptide Bond Primary structure fl? 4. Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acid The Origin and Chemistry of Life 17 ...
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