4-TheBrain-Neurons-6

4-TheBrain-Neurons-6 - The Brain-outline I. Cell Types:...

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1 The Brain--Neurons The Brain--outline I. Cell Types: II. Nerve Cell Communication: A. The Nerve Impulse (action potential) B. Synaptic Transmission C. Neural Integration III. Learning in Neural Networks IV. Cerebral Cortex: A. Functional Specialization B. Topographic Organization C. Contralateral Connections D. Asymmetry of higher Functions • Neurons: building blocks of behavior ~ a billion to a trillion cells • Glia: “helper cells”. Form myelin sheaths. • Blood Vessels: – nervous system requires plenty of blood and fuel (glucose) – ~40% of the blood pumped by the heart goes to the head Cell Types • Neurons: –Basic units of the nervous system –Receive, integrate, & transmit information –Operate though electrical impulses –Communicate with other neurons through chemical signals Neurons are specialized for communication • Structure: – Dendrites : receives information – Cell body (soma ): keeps cell alive; integrates signals –Axon : transmits signals (carries signals out) – Synapse : at end of axon -- where neurons make contact. – Terminal buttons : nodules at the ends of axons; contain synaptic vesicles ; release chemicals (neurotransmitters ) into the synaptic cleft Neurons are specialized for communication Neuron
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2 Synapse Neurons: the building blocks of behavior • Neuronal activity can be studied at several levels (e.g., ERP, single cells) • Electrochemical communication is the hallmark of neurons • The basic signal in the brain is the action potential • Neuronal communication failures lead to
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4-TheBrain-Neurons-6 - The Brain-outline I. Cell Types:...

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