Chapter_3a_Geometry_of_Crystals - GEOMETRY OF CRYSTALS Part...

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GEOMETRY OF CRYSTALS GEOMETRY OF CRYSTALS Space Lattices Motifs Crystal Systems Elementary Crystallography M.J. Buerger John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York (1956) The Structure of Materials Samuel M. Allen, Edwin L. Thomas John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York (1999) Advanced Reading MATERIALS SCIENCE MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING ENGINEERING Anandh Subramaniam & Kantesh Balani Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur- 208016 Email: [email protected], URL: home.iitk.ac.in/~anandh AN INTRODUCTORY E-BOOK AN INTRODUCTORY E-BOOK Part of A Learner’s Guide A Learner’s Guide A Learner’s Guide A Learner’s Guide
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In this chapter we shall try to understand a CRYSTAL We shall consider some ideal mathematical descriptions before taking up examples of real crystals (as we shall see these crystals contain atoms, ions or molecules) The use of Miller indices for directions and planes in lattices and crystals How to use X-Ray Diffraction for determination of crystal geometry. What will you learn in this chapter? This chapter is divided into three ‘sub-chapters’ (file structure)* * 3.1 Overview, Geometry of Crystals 3.2 Miller Indices 3.3 X-ray Diffraction
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In this sub-chapter we shall try to understand a CRYSTAL. We shall consider some ideal mathematical descriptions before taking up examples of real crystals (as we shall see these crystals contain atoms, ions or molecules). We will see that the language of crystallography is applicable to all kinds of crystals (those containing atomic entities, ‘physical properties’ or mathematical ones). The real crystals we consider in this chapter are also ‘idealizations’ (i.e. The crystals found in practice have various kinds of defects in them and we shall take up topics related to defects in crystals in the chapter on crystal imperfections ( Chapter-5 ) ). What will you learn in this ‘sub-chapter’? Video: Dendritic growth of crystal from melt Video: Dendritic growth of crystal from melt KDP crystals grown from solution Let us start by looking at crystallization from a melt (of stearic acid) Note the facets To see other kinds of crystals click here Slide 4 ( few slides)
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When we look around much of what we see is non-crystalline (organic things like wood, paper, sand; concrete walls, etc. some of the things may have some crystalline parts!). But, many of the common ‘inorganic’ materials are ‘usually * crystalline: Metals: Cu, Zn, Fe, Cu-Zn alloys Semiconductors: Si, Ge, GaAs Ceramics: Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), Zirconia (Zr 2 O 3 ), SiC, SrTiO 3 . Also, the usual form of crystalline materials (say a Cu wire or a piece of alumina) is polycrystalline and special care has to be taken to produce single crystals.
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  • Spring '13
  • B. Behera
  • Crystallography, Crystal, Cubic crystal system, Crystal system, Crystal Systems

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