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Conflict in Israel and Palestine_ Crash Course World History 223 - TRANSCRIPT

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4/20/2016Conflict in Israel and Palestine: Crash Course World History 223 ­ VoiceTube1/5­ VoiceTubeConflict in Israel and Palestine: Crash Course World History 2231. Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course World History,2. and today, we're going to talk about Israel and Palestine, hopefully, without a flame war.3. John from the past: Yeah, yeah big ask, Mr. Green,4. I mean, that fight goes back thousands and thousands of years.5. John: Except, thousands of years ago... there wasn't an Islam yet, so, yeah, no.6. Also, let me submit that very little of this conflict between Israel and Palestine over the last severaldecades7. has been about, like, theological differences between Islam and Judaism.8. No one's arguing about whether the most important prophets9. descended from Abraham's son Isaac, or his son Ishmael, right?10. It's not about whether to fast during Yom Kippur or Ramadan. It's about land.11. Portraying the conflict as eternal or as religious makes it feel intractable in a way that frankly, it isn't.12. So instead, let's begin as most historians do in the late 19th century.13. And instead of talking about religion,14. let's follow the lead of historians like James Gelvin and discuss competing nationalisms.15. Ok, so in the late 19th century, the Ottoman Empire ruled over what we now know as Palestine.16. The population there, according to Ottoman records from 1878, was 87% Muslim, 10% Christian and3% Jewish.17. Everybody spoke Arabic as the daily language, and in Jerusalem the religious populations were roughlyequal.18. To give you a sense of life in Ottoman Palestine,19. an Arab Orthodox Christian musician named Wasif Jawhariyyeh20. grew up in Jerusalem in the first decade of the 20th century learning the Quran in school21. and celebrating both Passover and Eid with his Jewish and Muslim neighbours.22. Ottoman Palestine was, in short, a place in which people of different religious faiths lived peacefullytogether.23. Alright, let's go to the Thought Bubble. The late 19th century was the Golden Age of nationalism inEurope,24. and no place was crazier than the Habsburg Austro­Hungarian Empire25. in which at least 10 different nations all wanted their own state.26. And in that hyper­nationalistic empire lived a Jewish journalist named Theodor Herzl27. who had hoped that Jews could assimilate into European nations28. but soon became convinced that the Jewish people needed to leave Europe and settle in their ownstate.29. The concept of Jewish nationalism came to be known as Zionism.30. It's important to keep in mind that most Zionists were secular Jews,31. so they imagined Israel as a state for Jews more than a Jewish state. In 1917, the British government,32. hoping to gain the support of Jewish people, issued the Balfour Declaration, promising, quote,33. "The establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people,"34. a bold promise considering that Palestine was still technically Ottoman,35. as they hadn't yet lost World War One.

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