BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVES OF LEARNING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Cognition
2 Perspectives of Learning LEARNING Cognitive Perspectives Behavioral Perspectives Constructionist Information Processing Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Cognition
3 Basic Definition of Learning It is defined as a relatively permanent change in an individual’s cognitive processes or behavior as a result of experience.
4 Behavioral Definition of Learning It is defined as a relatively permanent change in an individual’s behavior as a result of experience.
5 Key Aspects of Behavioral Perspective of Learning Definition: Learning is defined as a change in behavior that results from experience Focus: Stimuli and responses Role of the Individual: Passive Note: Environmental stimuli elicit behavior Emphasis: Productive classroom behavior Determination of Learning: Behavioral change
6 Assumptions of Behaviorism People are products of their environment – that is, people are conditioned by their environment Learning should focus on things that can be observed and studied objectively Learning is defined as a change in one’s behavior rather than mental processes Behavior is controlled by stimuli Learning principles derived from observing one species can be applied to other species – that is, learning is not uniquely human and animal research can be applied to human beings.
7 Two Types of Behaviorism Comparison of Two Types of Behaviorisms Characteristic Type of Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Behavior Involuntary, emotional, physiological Voluntary Order of Stimulus and Response Response follows stimulus Stimulus follows response How Learning Occurs Neutral stimuli become associated with unconditioned stimuli Stimuli following response influences subsequent responses Key Researcher Pavlov Skinner
8 Behaviorist Definitions and Symbols Definitions Conditioned: learned Unconditioned: unlearned Stimulus/stimuli: anything that can be perceived by the senses Response: behavior Involuntary: behavior that a person does not control (e.g., fear) Voluntary: behavior that a person can control (e.g. writing) Symbols C -conditioned U - unconditioned S - stimulus R - response or behavior
9 Terminology in Classical Conditioning Stimuli (S) Anything detectable by the senses (e.g., sight, sounds, smells, etc.) Response (R) Reflexive behaviors resulting from S Neutral Stimuli (NS) Stimuli that do not produce any response but can become conditioned stimuli:
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