Behavioral perspectives of learning

Behavioral Perspectives of Learning
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BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVES  OF LEARNING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Cognition
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2 Perspectives of Learning LEARNING Cognitive Perspectives Behavioral Perspectives Constructionist Information Processing Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Cognition
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3 Basic Definition of Learning It is defined as a relatively permanent change in  an individual’s cognitive processes  or  behavior  as a result of experience.
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4 Behavioral Definition of Learning It is defined as a relatively permanent change  in an individual’s  behavior  as a result of  experience.
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5 Key Aspects of Behavioral Perspective  of Learning Definition:    Learning is defined as a change in                behavior  that results from experience Focus:         Stimuli and responses   Role of the Individual:   Passive Note:  Environmental stimuli elicit behavior Emphasis:   Productive classroom behavior Determination of Learning:    Behavioral change
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6 Assumptions of Behaviorism People are products of their environment – that is, people are  conditioned by their environment Learning should focus on things that can be observed and studied  objectively Learning is defined as a change in one’s behavior rather than mental  processes Behavior is controlled by stimuli Learning principles derived from observing one species can be applied  to other species – that is, learning is not  uniquely   human and animal  research can be applied to human beings.
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7 Two Types of Behaviorism Comparison of Two Types of Behaviorisms Characteristic Type of Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Behavior Involuntary, emotional,  physiological Voluntary Order of Stimulus and  Response Response follows stimulus Stimulus follows response How Learning Occurs Neutral stimuli become  associated with unconditioned  stimuli Stimuli following response  influences subsequent  responses Key Researcher Pavlov Skinner
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8   Behaviorist Definitions and Symbols Definitions Conditioned:  learned Unconditioned:  unlearned Stimulus/stimuli:  anything that can be perceived by the senses Response:  behavior Involuntary:  behavior that a person does not control (e.g., fear) Voluntary:  behavior that a person can control (e.g. writing) Symbols  -    conditioned  -   unconditioned S    -   stimulus R    -   response or behavior
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9 Terminology in  Classical Conditioning Stimuli (S) Anything detectable by the senses (e.g., sight, sounds, smells, etc.) Response (R) Reflexive behaviors resulting from S  Neutral Stimuli (NS) Stimuli that do not produce any response but can become conditioned stimuli: 
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