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Main articles: German Confederation, German Empire, and German Colonial EmpireFollowing the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna(convened in 1814) founded the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund), a loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperorof Austriaas the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between theWeimar Republic and Nazi GermanyMain articles: Weimar Republicand Nazi GermanyGermany was declared a republicat the beginning of the German Revolutionin November 1918. On 11 August 1919 PresidentFriedrich Ebertsigned the democratic Weimar Constitution.In the subsequent struggle for power, the radical-lef Communistsseized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements in other parts of Germany attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr(military) and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions. Afer a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhrby Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of 1922–23, a