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Main articles: German Confederation , German Empire , and German Colonial Empire Following the fall of Napoleon , the Congress of Vienna (convened in 1814) founded the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund), a loose league of 39 sovereign states . The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Germany was declared a republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November 1918. On 11 August 1919 President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution . [48] In the subsequent struggle for power, the radical-lef Communists seized power in Bavaria , but conservative elements in other parts of Germany attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch . It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr (military) and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions. Afer a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of 1922–23 , a

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