Psychology of Personality EXAM 1

Psychology of Personality EXAM 1 - Psychology of...

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Psychology of Personality - Exam 1 Chapter 1 – Introduction to Personality Personality – set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his/her reactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environments) 1) psychological trait – characteristic that describes how people are alike/different ie shy/outgoing 2) mechanism – input from environment, output behaviors vary 3) organizing – brain, association, stable All affect how we react, etc. 1) collection of behaviors – person performs repeatedly over time, characterize 2) repeated – over time in different situations characterize, allow psychology to predict 3) allows predictions – about future actions Behavior Continuum – scale of variation How is personality formed? - Genetics (twin studies, nature vs. nurture) - learned o parents o culture o peers o environment o experiences - brain structure (Phinneas Gage – frontal lobe spike, originally: normal go-getter, after: aggressive, swore a lot, rude to familiy) Research Questions: - How many traits are there? o Which are important? - How are traits organized? o Are they related to other traits? - What are the origins of traits? o Heredity, behavioral, social… - o What outcomes are produced by having a certain trait? Three Levels of Personality Analysis p 12 - human nature – how we are “like all others” o traits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of our species and possessed by nearly everyone o EX: need to belong, capacity for love, aggression - – how we are “like some others” o individual differences refer to ways in which each person is like some other people eg, extraverts, sensation seekers, introverts
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o variation in human nature, differences between male and female - individual uniqueness – how we are “like no others” o individual uniqueness refers to the fact that every individual has personal and unique qualities not shared by any other person in the world o individuals can be studied nomothetically (research; involves statistical research of samples) or ideographically (research; look at single person and occurrances over lifetime case studies, biographical studies) o particular way of expressing individual/group differences Domain of Knowledge – theoretical approach - specialty area of science and scholarship where psychologists have focused on learning about specific and limited aspects of human nature - reasonable, but we must strive to integrate diverse domains of knowledge to get the “big picture” Six Domains of Knowledge 1) Dispositional Domain –deals with ways in which individuals differ from one another and therefore cuts across all other domains a. Focus on number and nature of fundamental dispositions b. Goal is to identify the most important ways in which individuals differ from one another
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Psychology of Personality EXAM 1 - Psychology of...

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