Social Psych EXAM1 - Definitions Introduction 1 Social...

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1. Social psychology – scientific study of the individual’s interactions with others in terms of behavior, thoughts, and feelings a. Seeks to understand nature of causes of behavior and thought in social situations b. Scientific because experiments are emphasized, and it uses: 1) Set of values 2) Several methods that can be used to study a wide range of topics 2. Common sense – contradictory, incomplete a. Sometimes agree, sometimes don’t b. Subject to biases in social cognitions 1) Hindsight bias 2) Illusory correlations 3) Illusion of unanimity 4) Availability heuristic 5) Representativeness heuristic 6) Preconceived notions 3. Situational importance a. Includes: 1) Physical environment 2) Presence and actions of others 3) Social norms inherent in the behavior setting b. People interact by changing/choosing situations c. Thoughts/feelings/perceptions about them affect our responses 4. Cognitive importance – schemas, attributions, & perceptions of ourselves, other people, and situations affect our responses in the world a. Memory/attention/perception important b. Heuristic and systematic processing c. Behavior and thought hand-in-hand d. Influence/influenced by emotions (cause us to focus) influence behavior 1) Much processing is implicit/non-conscious/effortless/automatic, affect perceptions 2) Need to determine good/bad 5. Emphasis on neuroscience – relate activity in brain and biological events to key aspects of social thoughts and behavior predispose people to react in social situations a. Neuroimaging b. Neuropsychological testing c. Hormones and behavior d. Animal studies about behavior 6. Emphasis on multicultural approach – importance of cultural factors in social behavior and thought a. Research in one culture doesn’t necessarily apply to others b. Diverse society with many individuals identifying with more than one culture or immigrating to this culture from another c. Contributions from variety of heratiges d. Sense of who we are/belonging to a group e. Salad/soup, not melting pot – maintain separate identity while living together 7. Emphasis on implicit process roles – automatic/implicit/non-conscious processing rapid, effortless, based on habit, informed by emotions, unaware of a. Needed because of limited conscious working memory capacity b. Clumping together, steretyping c. With controlled processing, more conscious/complex/focused attention/relatively accurate d. Trade-off : speed/accuracy
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Research Methods 1. Why we study them – learn what’s true in science a. Empirical evidence from research findings is the basis of knowledge in social psych b. Need to know limitations of findings 2. Methods : a. Case study (qualitative designs) – one/a few cases, intensive interviews, testing i. Qualitative methods often involve participant observation and interviewing ii. Can study rare cases to generate hypotheses iii. Cannot determine what is generalized b. Correlational (non experimental quantitative) – able to study issues where practical/ethical
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Social Psych EXAM1 - Definitions Introduction 1 Social...

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