Social Psych Study Guide ~ Exam 1 Chapter 1 Social Psychology - The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. Definition of Social Psych 1.) Social Thinking 2.) Social Influences 3.) Social Relations (group behavior) Research Methods: How We Do Social Psychology -Research in Social Psychology 1.) Need to have a theory 2.) Need to have a hypothesis 3.) Need to have a population 4.) Need a sample of the population -If you are using groups, use random assignment 5.) Have an independent variable 6.) Have a dependent variable 7.) Research needs to components -Reliability -Validity Theory - An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events. Hypothesis - A testable proposition that describes a relationship that describes a relationship that may exist between events. Some Big Ideas in Social Psychology 1.) We construct our social reality 2.) Our social intuitions are powerful, sometimes perilous 3.) Attitudes shape, and are shaped by, behavior 4.) Social influences shape behavior 5.) Dispositions shape behavior 6.) Social behavior is also biological behavior 7.) Feelings and actions toward people are sometimes negative and sometimes positive 8.) Social psychology’s principles are applicable to everyday life
Critical Thinking Guidelines (8 points you need for research) 1.) As a researcher you need to ask questions. 2.) Define your terms 3.) Examine the evidence 4.) Analyze your assumptions & biases 5.) Avoid emotional reason 6.) Don’t over simplify 7.) Consider other interpretations 8.) Tolerate uncertainty Chapter 2 Spotlight Effect - The belief that others are paying more attention to one’s appearance and behavior than they really are. Illusions of Transparency - The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others. Self-concept - A person’s answers to the question “who am I?” How you see yourself and how others see you differently. Possible Selves - Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future. Self-esteem - A person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth. Learned Helplessness - The hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events. - People experience uncontrollable bad events learn to feel helpless. - Researcher: Martin Seligman Self-efficiency - A sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, one’s sense of self worth. - A bombardier might feel high self-efficiency and low self-esteem.
Negative Effects of Having Low Self-esteem - People with low self-esteem are more likely to be depressed, drug addiction, and delinquency. - Even if they do well in public, they don’t meet their standards that they have. - They don’t take risks Chapter 3 Constructing Memories of Ourselves and Our Worlds - 2 people can see it completely different.