Lecture 6 - Lecture 6 Overview of Basic Separation...

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Anal Chem 251 Lect 6 Chromatography 1 Lecture 6 • Overview of Basic Separation Techniques • Chapter 21 pp. 447 – 457 Principles of Chromatography • Chapter 22 pp. 479 – 489 HPLC (Problems 22:8,9,11,12) (Note order of chapters)
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Anal Chem 251 Lect 6 Chromatography 2 Tools of the Laboratory Basic Separation Techniques Filtration : Separates components of a mixture based upon differences in particle size. Normally separating a precipitate from a solution, or particles from an air stream. (You filtered your seawater) Crystallization : Separation is based upon differences in solubility of components in a mixture. (Organic Lab) Distillation : separation is based upon differences in volatility . Extraction : Separation is based upon differences in solubility in different solvents (major material). Chromatography : Separation is based upon differences in affinity in a solvent (mobile) versus a stationary phase.
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Anal Chem 251 Lect 6 Chromatography 3 Tools of the Laboratory Basic Separation Techniques Figure B2.3 Filtration Figure B2.4 Crystallization
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Anal Chem 251 Lect 6 Chromatography 4 Tools of the Laboratory Figure B2.5
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Anal Chem 251 Lect 6 Chromatography 5 Tools of the Laboratory Figure B2.6
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Anal Chem 251 Lect 6 Chromatography 6 p.923 •During the beginning of the 20th century, a Russian botanist named Mikail S. Tsweet developed the chromatography process. •Tsweet originally used the process to separate plant pigments. •“Chroma” means color and “graphein” means to write . History of Chromatography
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Anal Chem 251 Lect 6 Chromatography 7 What is Chromatography Chromatography is the general name applied to a series of methods that employ a system with two phases of matter: a stationary phase and a mobile phase. The stationary phase is a solid or a liquid adsorbed on a solid, and the mobile phase is either a liquid or a gas. The separation process occurs because the components of the mixture have different affinities for the two phases and thus move through the system at different rates. A component with a high affinity for the mobile phase moves relatively quickly through the chromatographic system, whereas one with a high affinity for the solid phase moves more slowly.
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Anal Chem 251 Lect 6 Chromatography 8 Classification of Chromatographic Methods Planar Chromatography : The stationary phase is supported on a flat plate or in the pores of a paper. Here the mobile phase moves through the stationary phase by capillary action or under the influence of gravity. Column Chromatography : The stationary phase is held in a narrow tube, and the mobile phase is forced through the tube under pressure or by gravity. (Lab)
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Anal Chem 251 Lect 6 Chromatography 9 Paper Chromatography (Planar Chromatography) • One simple type of chromatography, paper chromatography, employs a strip of porous paper, such as filter paper, for the stationary phase. A drop of the mixture to be separated is placed on the paper, which is then dipped into a liquid (the mobile phase) that travels up the paper as though it were a wick.
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Lecture 6 - Lecture 6 Overview of Basic Separation...

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