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Methods of Adjusting Tonicity.pdf - Methods of Adjusting...

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Methods of Adjusting TonicityClass I MethodNaClor other substance (such asdextrose) is be added to the drug solution inorder to lower the freezing point to -52°C, making it isotonicwith the body fluids and not causeirritability. Note: Drugs need to be in isotonic solutiontonot cause irritability, the same pH andsame osmotic pressure.Cryoscopic MethodNaCl equivalent MethodClass I MethodH2Ois added to the drug in sufficient amounts to forman isotonic solution.The preparation is then brought to its final volume with an isotonic or buffered isotonic dilutionsolution.White – Vincent MethodEquation: V = W x E x 111.1whereV is volume in ml of isotonic solution that may be preparedW is the weight in grams of the drug given in the problemE is the NaCl EquivalentSprowl's Method- this method is a further simplification of the method of White andVincent. The equation can be used to construct a table of values of V when the weight of thedrug is fixed as 0.3 g. this can be computed for drugs commonly used in Opthalmic and parentalsolutions.Exercise:Use White – Vincent Method for 1 & 21. Make isotonic: 0.5 g pilocarpine 50 ml solutionE(pilocarpine) = 0.23
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atropine, Psychedelics dissociatives and deliriants, World Health Organization essential medicines, Vincent Method

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