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Artstor.org Login: arth290 Password: asianart290 Ancient India Indus civilization 2500-1700 bc Vedic age ca. 1500 bc - Ancient cities of the Indus - Excavated in the 1920’s - Evolved from farming and pastoral work (700 years) - Mesopotamia eventually becomes Iraq - Mesopotamia and India are in touch with each other - There were no elaborate temples or elite burials - Over 1500 settlements discovered in over 68000 sq km constituting twice the size of Mesopotamia and Egypt - Had massive gateways and wells and bathing rooms and storage system - Stealite seals with undeciphered scripts - Mohenjodaro would have dominated trade routes in the region 2500 – 1900 bc o Well built and planned cities and towns found along Indus o Bricks were standardized - Streets were named north, south, east, west due to urban civilization - There were no evidence of warfare - Had private bathing areas o Sewers o A central water system- well - Had a “great bath” o Used for rituals - Nearby at around the same time in west India temples had big bath tubs - Same use it has today - Lothal, Gujarat o Probably close to the sea a long time ago (no longer) o Was a port - Types of arts found o Terracotta females- fertility o Gold, agate, copper, bronze plates, pots o Painted pottery at burials showing that there were no strong beliefs in afterlife o Stamp seals Square, with animal motifs Attached to goods for trade Some animals shown feeding from a trough as a sign or respect Could have been a brand name or clan symbol “Proto Shiva”- wide horns like a water buffalo, ithyphallic (to maintain human life), had three faces, seated in a yogic position with bangles on both arms Elephant, tiger, rhino, and water buffalo, antelope in front of the dais o bangles with trees were sacred o unicorn were mythical animals o zebu bull- powerful clan or top officials, relatively rare on seals - End of the Indus civilization - No evidence of war - Probably rivers dried up and shifted course - Around 1500 bc gradual migrations of the Aryans from Eurasian to India via Iran and Afghanistan - Pastoral nomads - Aryan invasion theory debunked - Aryans meant honorable one
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Artstor.org Login: arth290 Password: asianart290 - Indians thought that Aryans rode chariots and took over - The Aryans - “Aryan” ethno linguistic term for Indo-Iranian - During the Vedic period - Worshipping of nature started- personification o Celestial Varma Solar gods Surya Vishnu- a minor god o Atmoshperic Inora- warrior king of gods Vayu- wind - Carried fire which rises up bringing the food up to the gods - Fire altars were a way to send messages up to the gods - Animal sacrifice - The method was questioned - Upanishads written which postulated a world soul - Brahman and individual soul, atman - Reincarnation - Ultimate idea moksha/ extinction, being freed from reincarnation- to become one with Brahman - The Buddha was born in this period as Siddhartha Gautama o Shakya muni o Bodhi tree o Founded the sangha community of monks
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