Chem007FinalRev - Chemistry 007 Fall 2007 Dr Pontrello...

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Chemistry 007, Fall 2007 Dr. Pontrello Review Outline: Final, Chem 207 Chem 007 students from the most recent Weekly Group Session expanded ( bulleted items) the review outline distributed in Chem 207. The expanded outline follows. Final Exam: Monday, December, 7:00-9:30pm Outline of Topics for Review Transition Metals (Chapters 23-1, 24-1 to 24-5) Electronic Configurations of d metals and their cations. These metals often have unfilled d orbitals, example: 4th period Sc electron configuration is 4s 2 3d 1 (n)s orbital fills first Hunds rule- one electron in each of the five d-orbitals (spin aligned) before pairing Half and Full shells are particularly stable, so one electron will move from s orbital into d orbital to obtain this configuration, examples: Cr 4s 1 3d 5 and Cu 4s 1 3d 10 When the T-metals Ionize they lose the (n)s electrons before the (n-1)d, example: Cu [Ar] 4s 1 3d 10 Cu [Ar] 3d 10 Periodic Trends in d-metals, e.g. radii, melting points, oxidations states, ionization energies, electronegativity The metallic radii get smaller from Sc Cr but then do not change much from Mn Cu; Sc Cr (Increased nuclear charge); Mn Cu (there is electron-to- electron repulsion from pairing) Traveling across a row of transition elements- nuclear charge, number of d electrons, generally increase Melting points are affected by the electron pairing effect (The more unpaired electrons the better the covalent bonding thus the higher the melting point) The more paired electrons an substance has, then the less bonding will occur between the electrons and the more repulsion they will have, thus a lower melting point Early vs. Late T-metals and their properties Early T-metals: from Sc to Fe. These metals usually tend to be more electro positive, have high oxidation numbers, low Ionization Energies (M ² > M ³ > M ⁴⁺ ), higher oxidation states (charge states) (eg. 2 all the way to 7 ), they tend to have larger radii, they bond to electronegative species in an ionic fashion (example: Mn F ) Late T-metals: Mn to Cu. They tend to be less electropositive, higher Ionization Energies, lower oxidation states (M 2+ , M ), they tend to have smaller radii, bond to less electronegative anions S 2- , Br - , generally as you move down a group bonding becomes more covalent
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Electrons diffuse and in high energy shells they are easily polarized-size increases in some cases however, there are many exceptions General structure of coordination compounds, ligands, meaning of mono vs. bi and tridentate ligands Coordination Complexes are composed of a central metal atom or cation (positively charged) This cation is surrounded by "Ligands" - usually anions (F - , Cl - , O 2- or small molecules NH 3 or H 2 O) Ligands supply an electron pair to compensate for the charge of the metal (A Ligand plus a Metal = Complex) Properties 1) Various colors 2) Magnetic Properties 3) Multiple oxidation states "electron buffer" 4) Different structures 5) Used as a catalysts in reactions
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