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Chem007Prelim1Rev

Chem007Prelim1Rev - Chemistry 007 Fall 2007 Dr Pontrello...

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Chemistry 007, Fall 2007 Dr. Pontrello Review Outline: Prelim 1, Chem 207 Chem 007 students from the most recent Weekly Group Session (9/30) expanded (bulleted items) the review outline distributed in Chem 207. The expanded outline follows. First Prelim: Thursday, October 4, 7:30-9:00pm Outline of Topics for Review Atoms & the Structure of Matter (Chapter 2) Two observations leading to Dalton's theory: conservation of mass in chemical change & fixed compositions of chemical compounds. • Mass is conserved in chemical reactions • Compounds have atoms in fixed ratios (fixed compositions) Dalton's atomic theory. • each element is composed of atoms. Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed • all atoms of an element are alike in mass • in a compound, atoms of different elements combine in simple ratios Electric and magnetic forces on charged particles. Three experiments that revealed atomic structure: Thomson's expt with cathode rays, Millikan's oil drop expt, Rutherford's expt. • Thomson – existence of e-, ratio of mass to electric charge • Millikan – charge of e- • Rutherford – positive nucleus, massive center packed with protons Neutrons and protons. • Proton (+ charge), neutron (neutral), electron (- charge) Describing the elements: atomic number, mass number, isotopes, ions. • atomic #, Z, (protons); mass #, A, (protons + neutrons) • isotopes – different number of neutrons • ions – different numbers of electrons Atomic masses: significance of the atomic mass unit. • amu – standard of mass The mole, Avogadro's number, molar mass of atoms and molecules. • 1 mole = 6.022 x 10 23 “things” • molar mass accounts for mass and natural abundance of each isotope. Chemical Compounds (Chapter 3, Secs. 1-3) Molecules: single, double, and triple covalent bonds, ionic bonds. • covalent – electrons are shared between atoms • ionic – electrons are transferred • H-H (single), O=C=O (double), N N (triple)
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• strength – single covalent < double covalent < triple covalent Representing a molecule: empirical formula, molecular formula, structural formula
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