PSYC 325 Outline Exam 4 - CHAPTER 12: PROBLEM SOLVING I....

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CHAPTER 12: P ROBLEM  S OLVING I. Classifying Problems: A. Greeno (1978) defined problems in terms of cognitive abilities required to solve problems. B. He argues that there are three classes of specific problem-related cognitive abilities. C. Arrangement Problems 1. Task: to find a new arrangement/relation among the components 2. Provided: To-be-rearranged components and criteria for the solution 3. Skills required: a. Fluency in generating possibilities b. Retrieval of solution patterns (analogy, etc.) c. Knowledge of principles constraining the search 4. Gestalt psychologists emphasized problem structure and, therefore, analyzed problem solving from this perspective. a. Correct organization often results from insight b. Insight causes a sudden solution due to reorganization of problem representation. c. Functional fixedness makes finding the correct arrangement difficult, e.g., Candle and String problems. D. Inducing Structure Problems 1. Task: to identify the principle/rule/underlying structure that explains how components are related 2. Provided: Components organized according to principle/rule 3. Skills required: a. Identifying relations among components b. Fitting relations into patterns 4. Sternberg's model of analogical problem solving has four processes: a. Encoding (What's important?) b. Inference (What is/are the relevant relation(s) between 1st and 2nd terms?) c. Mapping (What is/are the relevant relation(s) between 1st and 3rd terms?) d. Application (What is the relevant relation between 3rd and 4th terms?) E. Transformation Problems 1. Task: to transform initial state into a specified goal state 2. Provided: explicit description of start state, explicit description of goal state, permissible/legal operators 3. Skills required: planning based on means-end analysis 4. Most-studied class of problems. Highly amenable to computer programming. Most problem-solving theories are based on this kind of problem. II. Newell and Simon's Theory A. Objective and Method 1. Consider how programming a computer to solve problems could contribute to a theory of human problem solving ( simulation programming ). 2. Collect detailed data on how humans solve the same problems ( verbal protocols ). 3. Why computers? a. In general, thinking is not directly observable. b. Simulation programs precisely define terms like "memory" and "strategy." c. If the computer program works, this means that no steps have been left unspecified. d. Success of the computer program in solving the problem is a measure of sufficiency. B. Theoretical Assumptions 1. Performance is limited by capacity, storage time, and retrieval time of both STM and LTM. 2. A good plan for solving a problem ignores unpromising choices. a.
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PSYC 325 Outline Exam 4 - CHAPTER 12: PROBLEM SOLVING I....

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