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environmental Test 2 - Nature and Human Nature Measuring...

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Nature and Human Nature Measuring landscape preferences o Ecological approach o Descriptive approach Emphasizes basic elements of design Line, form, color, texture Contrasts in natural landscapes are pleasing o Physical-perceptual approach Empirical o Psychological approach Kaplan & Kaplan o Coherence o Legibility o Complexity o Mystery These things are favored by people, and it makes evolutionary sense Biophilia Hypothesis o Love of the biosphere o We prefer natural landscapes due to history (evolution) E.O. Wilson Biophobias- intense irrational fears about things that make evolutionary sense o Fetishes Rachman (1976)- conditioned women’s objects and erotic pictures o Ulrich (1979)- students were more at ease for a test when they were shown nature scenes o Ulrich (1984)- less complications in hospital if there’s nature outside the window Experience o Hartig et al (1991) Identified a group of backpackers Self-selected amongst themselves between: Backpacking trip Car vacation Staying home Monitored them for a 4-7 day period Assessed: happiness and attention Being in nature supposedly benefits both Backpackers weren’t immediately happier, but were 1-2 days later Backpackers scored higher on the attention task o Hartig et al Randomly assigned college students to either:
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A nature walk An urban walk Relax with a magazine in a comfortable chair Nature walk people had to ride in a van for about half an hour to get there Urban walkers had to ride in a van, but for a shorter distance Both terrains were generally the same, except in different environments The people on the nature walk were happier than those in both other conditions They also reported less anger and aggression No differences in physiological arousal o Hartig et al (2003) Attention depleting task: proof-reading or some task to make participants tired, reduce their attention capacity They walked through either a natural or an urban environment Measured attention, mood, and blood pressure Used random assignment and controls Involved actual experience Variables were similar, because no travel was involved this time Natural environment walkers had increased attention and mood and lower blood pressure both with and without the ADT o Van den Berg et al (2003) Participants viewed “Faces of Death #1”, a movie with images of animals being slaughtered They then viewed either an urban or natural environment movie, walking through either area Measured: attention, how they felt about the environment, affective restoration (mood) Pre/post walk movie moods were measured Nature movie resulted in better attention and mood o Type of environment (A) affective restoration ratings of environment (B) Data was consistent with this path model A B because A changes the amount of affective restoration that occurs o Existential Terror Fear of death Achieve permanence:
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